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Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Volume 2009, Article ID 656092, 12 pages
Review Article

EEG/MEG Source Imaging: Methods, Challenges, and Open Issues

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, 33101 Tampere, Finland
2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara, Turkey
3SCD, Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
4MOBILAB, Biosciences and Technology Department, Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen, Kleinhoefstraat 4, B-2440 Geel, Belgium
5Department of Biomedical Physics, University of Warsaw ul. Hoża 69, 00-681 Warszawa, Poland
6Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
7Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
8National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Laser Department, 077125 Bucharest, Romania
9Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece
10Electrical Neuroimaging Group, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Geneva University Hospital, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
11Neurodynamics Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology, University of Barcelona, 08035 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

Received 25 November 2008; Revised 31 March 2009; Accepted 29 April 2009

Academic Editor: Laura Astolfi

Copyright © 2009 Katrina Wendel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We present the four key areas of research—preprocessing, the volume conductor, the forward problem, and the inverse problem—that affect the performance of EEG and MEG source imaging. In each key area we identify prominent approaches and methodologies that have open issues warranting further investigation within the community, challenges associated with certain techniques, and algorithms necessitating clarification of their implications. More than providing definitive answers we aim to identify important open issues in the quest of source localization.