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Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience is a forum for the interdisciplinary field of neural computing, neural engineering and artificial intelligence. The journal’s focus is on intelligent systems for computational neuroscience.
Chief Editor, Professor Cichocki, engages in world-leading research in the field of artificial intelligence and biomedical applications of advanced data analytics technologies.
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A Dendritic Neuron Model with Adaptive Synapses Trained by Differential Evolution Algorithm
A dendritic neuron model with adaptive synapses (DMASs) based on differential evolution (DE) algorithm training is proposed. According to the signal transmission order, a DNM can be divided into four parts: the synaptic layer, dendritic layer, membrane layer, and somatic cell layer. It can be converted to a logic circuit that is easily implemented on hardware by removing useless synapses and dendrites after training. This logic circuit can be designed to solve complex nonlinear problems using only four basic logical devices: comparators, AND (conjunction), OR (disjunction), and NOT (negation). To obtain a faster and better solution, we adopt the most popular DE for DMAS training. We have chosen five classification datasets from the UCI Machine Learning Repository for an experiment. We analyze and discuss the experimental results in terms of the correct rate, convergence rate, ROC curve, and the cross-validation and then compare the results with a dendritic neuron model trained by the backpropagation algorithm (BP-DNM) and a neural network trained by the backpropagation algorithm (BPNN). The analysis results show that the DE-DMAS shows better performance in all aspects.
Anomaly Detection in EEG Signals: A Case Study on Similarity Measure
Motivation. Anomaly EEG detection is a long-standing problem in analysis of EEG signals. The basic premise of this problem is consideration of the similarity between two nonstationary EEG recordings. A well-established scheme is based on sequence matching, typically including three steps: feature extraction, similarity measure, and decision-making. Current approaches mainly focus on EEG feature extraction and decision-making, and few of them involve the similarity measure/quantification. Generally, to design an appropriate similarity metric, that is compatible with the considered problem/data, is also an important issue in the design of such detection systems. It is however impossible to directly apply those existing metrics to anomaly EEG detection without any consideration of domain specificity. Methodology. The main objective of this work is to investigate the impacts of different similarity metrics on anomaly EEG detection. A few metrics that are potentially available for the EEG analysis have been collected from other areas by a careful review of related works. The so-called power spectrum is extracted as features of EEG signals, and a null hypothesis testing is employed to make the final decision. Two indicators have been used to evaluate the detection performance. One is to reflect the level of measured similarity between two compared EEG signals, and the other is to quantify the detection accuracy. Results. Experiments were conducted on two data sets, respectively. The results demonstrate the positive impacts of different similarity metrics on anomaly EEG detection. The Hellinger distance (HD) and Bhattacharyya distance (BD) metrics show excellent performances: an accuracy of 0.9167 for our data set and an accuracy of 0.9667 for the Bern-Barcelona EEG data set. Both of HD and BD metrics are constructed based on the Bhattacharyya coefficient, implying the priority of the Bhattacharyya coefficient when dealing with the highly noisy EEG signals. In future work, we will exploit an integrated metric that combines HD and BD for the similarity measure of EEG signals.
Multi-Rule Based Ensemble Feature Selection Model for Sarcasm Type Detection in Twitter
Sentimental analysis aims at inferring how people express their opinion over any piece of text or topic of interest. This article deals with detection of an implicit form of the sentiment, referred to as sarcasm. Sarcasm conveys the opposite of what people try to convey in order to criticize or ridicule in a humorous way. It plays a vital role in social networks since most of the tweets or posts contain sarcastic nuances. Existing approaches towards the study of sarcasm deals only with the detection of sarcasm. In this paper, in addition to detecting sarcasm from text, an approach has been proposed to identify the type of sarcasm. The main motivation behind determining the types of sarcasm is to identify the level of hurt or the true intent behind the sarcastic text. The proposed work aims to improve upon the existing approaches by incorporating a new perspective which classifies the sarcasm based on the level of harshness employed. The major application of the proposed work would be relating the emotional state of a person to the type of sarcasm exhibited by him/her which could provide major insights about the emotional behavior of a person. An ensemble-based feature selection method has been proposed for identifying the optimal set of features needed to detect sarcasm from tweets. This optimal set of features was employed to detect whether the tweet is sarcastic or not. After detecting sarcastic sentences, a multi-rule based approach has been proposed to determine the type of sarcasm. As an initial attempt, sarcasm has been classified into four types, namely, polite sarcasm, rude sarcasm, raging sarcasm, and deadpan sarcasm. The performance and efficiency of the proposed approach has been experimentally analyzed, and change in mood of a person for each sarcastic type has been modelled. The overall accuracy of the proposed ensemble feature selection algorithm for sarcasm detection is around 92.7%, and the proposed multi-rule approach for sarcastic type identification achieves an accuracy of 95.98%, 96.20%, 99.79%, and 86.61% for polite, rude, raging, and deadpan types of sarcasm, respectively.
An Overview of Image Caption Generation Methods
In recent years, with the rapid development of artificial intelligence, image caption has gradually attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of artificial intelligence and has become an interesting and arduous task. Image caption, automatically generating natural language descriptions according to the content observed in an image, is an important part of scene understanding, which combines the knowledge of computer vision and natural language processing. The application of image caption is extensive and significant, for example, the realization of human-computer interaction. This paper summarizes the related methods and focuses on the attention mechanism, which plays an important role in computer vision and is recently widely used in image caption generation tasks. Furthermore, the advantages and the shortcomings of these methods are discussed, providing the commonly used datasets and evaluation criteria in this field. Finally, this paper highlights some open challenges in the image caption task.
Shadow Elimination Algorithm Using Color and Texture Features
Shadow detection and removal in real scene images are a significant problem for target detection. This work proposes an improved shadow detection and removal algorithm for urban video surveillance. First, the foreground is detected by background subtraction and the shadow is detected by HSV color space. Using local variance and OTSU method, we obtain the moving targets with texture features. According to the characteristics of shadow in HSV space and texture feature, the shadow is detected and removed to eliminate the shadow interference for the subsequent processing of moving targets. Finally, we embed our algorithm into C/S framework based on the HTML5 web socket protocol. Both the experimental and actual operation results show that the proposed algorithm is efficient and robust in target detection and shadow detection and removal under different scenes.
A Hyperheuristic Approach for Location-Routing Problem of Cold Chain Logistics considering Fuel Consumption
In response to violent market competition and demand for low-carbon economy, cold chain logistics companies have to pay attention to customer satisfaction and carbon emission for better development. In this paper, a biobjective mathematical model is established for cold chain logistics network in consideration of economic, social, and environmental benefits; in other words, the total cost and distribution period of cold chain logistics are optimized, while the total cost consists of cargo damage cost, refrigeration cost of refrigeration equipment, transportation cost, fuel consumption cost, penalty cost of time window, and operation cost of distribution centres. One multiobjective hyperheuristic optimization framework is proposed to address this multiobjective problem. In the framework, four selection strategies and four acceptance criteria for solution set are proposed to improve the performance of the multiobjective hyperheuristic framework. As known from a comparative study, the proposed algorithm had better overall performance than NSGA-II. Furthermore, instances of cold chain logistics are modelled and solved, and the resulting Pareto solution set offers diverse options for a decision maker to select an appropriate cold chain logistics distribution network in the interest of the logistics company.