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Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Volume 2015, Article ID 583620, 17 pages
Research Article

Effects of Between- and Within-Subject Variability on Autonomic Cardiorespiratory Activity during Sleep and Their Limitations on Sleep Staging: A Multilevel Analysis

1Department of Personal Health, Philips Research, 5656 AE Eindhoven, Netherlands
2Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands
3Department of Behavior, Cognition & Perception, Philips Research, 5656 AE Eindhoven, Netherlands

Received 24 March 2015; Revised 8 July 2015; Accepted 21 July 2015

Academic Editor: Dominic Heger

Copyright © 2015 Xi Long et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Autonomic cardiorespiratory activity changes across sleep stages. However, it is unknown to what extent it is affected by between- and within-subject variability during sleep. As it is hypothesized that the variability is caused by differences in subject demographics (age, gender, and body mass index), time, and physiology, we quantified these effects and investigated how they limit reliable cardiorespiratory-based sleep staging. Six representative parameters obtained from 165 overnight heartbeat and respiration recordings were analyzed. Multilevel models were used to evaluate the effects evoked by differences in sleep stages, demographics, time, and physiology between and within subjects. Results show that the between- and within-subject effects were found to be significant for each parameter. When adjusted by sleep stages, the effects in physiology between and within subjects explained more than 80% of total variance but the time and demographic effects explained less. If these effects are corrected, profound improvements in sleep staging can be observed. These results indicate that the differences in subject demographics, time, and physiology present significant effects on cardiorespiratory activity during sleep. The primary effects come from the physiological variability between and within subjects, markedly limiting the sleep staging performance. Efforts to diminish these effects will be the main challenge.