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Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Volume 2017, Article ID 2843651, 11 pages
Research Article

A New Hybrid Model FPA-SVM Considering Cointegration for Particular Matter Concentration Forecasting: A Case Study of Kunming and Yuxi, China

1School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China
2North Automatic Control Technology Research Institute, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Weide Li; nc.ude.uzl@ilediew

Received 3 February 2017; Revised 7 June 2017; Accepted 6 July 2017; Published 28 August 2017

Academic Editor: Thomas DeMarse

Copyright © 2017 Weide Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Air pollution in China is becoming more serious especially for the particular matter (PM) because of rapid economic growth and fast expansion of urbanization. To solve the growing environment problems, daily PM2.5 and PM10 concentration data form January 1, 2015, to August 23, 2016, in Kunming and Yuxi (two important cities in Yunnan Province, China) are used to present a new hybrid model CI-FPA-SVM to forecast air PM2.5 and PM10 concentration in this paper. The proposed model involves two parts. Firstly, due to its deficiency to assess the possible correlation between different variables, the cointegration theory is introduced to get the input-output relationship and then obtain the nonlinear dynamical system with support vector machine (SVM), in which the parameters c and g are optimized by flower pollination algorithm (FPA). Six benchmark models, including FPA-SVM, CI-SVM, CI-GA-SVM, CI-PSO-SVM, CI-FPA-NN, and multiple linear regression model, are considered to verify the superiority of the proposed hybrid model. The empirical study results demonstrate that the proposed model CI-FPA-SVM is remarkably superior to all considered benchmark models for its high prediction accuracy, and the application of the model for forecasting can give effective monitoring and management of further air quality.