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Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 6076913, 12 pages
Review Article

Enrichment of Human-Computer Interaction in Brain-Computer Interfaces via Virtual Environments

Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, 64849 Monterrey, NL, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to Alonso-Valerdi Luz MarĂ­a

Received 23 June 2017; Revised 1 November 2017; Accepted 12 November 2017; Published 29 November 2017

Academic Editor: Fabio Solari

Copyright © 2017 Alonso-Valerdi Luz María and Mercado-García Víctor Rodrigo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Tridimensional representations stimulate cognitive processes that are the core and foundation of human-computer interaction (HCI). Those cognitive processes take place while a user navigates and explores a virtual environment (VE) and are mainly related to spatial memory storage, attention, and perception. VEs have many distinctive features (e.g., involvement, immersion, and presence) that can significantly improve HCI in highly demanding and interactive systems such as brain-computer interfaces (BCI). BCI is as a nonmuscular communication channel that attempts to reestablish the interaction between an individual and his/her environment. Although BCI research started in the sixties, this technology is not efficient or reliable yet for everyone at any time. Over the past few years, researchers have argued that main BCI flaws could be associated with HCI issues. The evidence presented thus far shows that VEs can (1) set out working environmental conditions, (2) maximize the efficiency of BCI control panels, (3) implement navigation systems based not only on user intentions but also on user emotions, and (4) regulate user mental state to increase the differentiation between control and noncontrol modalities.