(1)Set , , n, and
(2)Randomly initialize the test points
(3)
(4)Calculate fitness value
(5)
(6)while
(7) Calculate average value of all test points and its fitness value
(8)
(9)
(10)if
(11)  
(12)end
(13) Downward leader movement toward the ground
(14)for i = 1: 
(15) randomly select
(16)  if
(17)   
(18)  else
(19)   
(20)  end
(21)  Calculate fitness value of new test points
(22)  if
(23)   
(24)  end
(25)end
(26) Upward leader movement
(27)for i = 1: 
(28)  
(29)  
(30)  if
(31)   
(32)  end
(33)end
(34)
(35)end
Algorithm 1: Pseudocode of basic LAPO.