Natural History of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Implications for Clinical Practice and an Individualized ApproachRead the full article
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology publishes studies of areas related to medical, surgical, pathological, biochemical and physiological aspects of gastroenterology and hepatology.
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Effectiveness of Conservative Treatment without Early Colonoscopy in Patients with Colonic Diverticular Hemorrhage
Aim. This study was aimed to clarify the effectiveness of conservative treatment without performing early colonoscopy and the indications for early colonoscopy in patients with colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Methods. This retrospective study included 142 participants who were urgently hospitalized due to bloody stools and were diagnosed with colonic diverticular hemorrhage between April 2012 and December 2016. At the time of hospital visit, only when both shock based on vital signs and intestinal extravasation on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography were observed, early colonoscopy was performed within 24 hours after hospitalization. However, in other cases, patients were conservatively treated without undergoing early colonoscopy. In cases of initial treatment failure in patients with shock, interventional radiology (IVR) was performed without undergoing early colonoscopy. Results. Conservative treatment was performed in 137 (96.5%) patients, and spontaneous hemostasis was achieved in all patients. By contrast, urgent hemostasis was performed in five (3.5%) patients; three and two attained successful hemostasis via early colonoscopy and IVR, respectively. There were no significant differences between two groups in terms of early rebleeding (7.3% vs. 0%,) and recurrent bleeding (22.7% vs. 20.0%, ). The factors associated with the cumulative recurrent bleeding rates were a previous history of colonic diverticular hemorrhage (hazard ratio 5.63, 95% confidence interval 2.68–12.0, ) and oral administration of thienopyridine derivative (hazard ratio 3.05, 95% confidence interval 1.23–7.53, ). Conclusions. In this series, conservative treatment without early colonoscopy was successful in patients with colonic diverticular hemorrhage.
Clinicopathological Features, Treatment Strategy, and Prognosis of Primary Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma of the Duodenum: A SEER Database Analysis
Objective. Primary duodenum lymphoma (PDL) is extremely rare with limited data available in the literature. In this study, we sought to describe clinical features and identify factors affecting survival in patients with PDL using a large population cohort. Methods. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried from 1998 to 2015. Results. A total of 1060 cases of PDLs were identified. Clinicopathological features as well as survival data of PDLs were analyzed and compared with 10573 primary gastric lymphomas (PGLs) and 3239 primary small intestinal lymphomas (PSILs) from the SEER database. PDL patients were younger in age (60.96 ± 15.205), and the proportion of stage I (53.21%) was higher in Ann Arbor staging. The proportion of PDLs treated by surgery (8.68%) is the lowest among PDLs, PGLs, and PSILs. The DSS of PDLs were significantly better than those of PGLs and PSILs, respectively (10-year survival rate: 21.24% vs. 20.40%, ; 10-year survival rate: 21.24% vs. 16.79%, ). Age, gender, Ann Arbor staging, and histological type were regarded as independent prognostic factor for the DSS by multivariate analysis (all ). Patients with <65 years, female, stage I, and FL were found to be significantly associated with good DSS. The treatment modality (surgery vs. conservative treatment) was not statistically related to DSS. The proportion of PDL patients who received surgical treatment gradually decreased from 15.60% in period 2 to 5.26% in period 4. Conclusions. The clinicopathologic features of duodenal lymphoma were significantly different from those of gastric lymphoma and small intestinal lymphoma. The prognosis of PDLs was significantly better than those of the other two groups, and there was no statistical survival benefit from surgery in PDLs.
Intestinal Microbiome Changes in Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT) vs. FMT Enriched with Lactobacillus in the Treatment of Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection
Aim. In this study, we conducted a comparative study to explore the differences in therapeutic efficacy and intestinal microbiome of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) vs. FMT in addition with Lactobacillus (FMT-L) for treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (R-CDI). Methods. We designed a double-blinded randomized comparative two-arm pilot multicenter study to assess the efficacy and impact in the intestinal microbiome of standard capsules of FMT vs. FMT-L enriched with 3 species of Lactobacillus for patients with R-CDI. A 90-day follow-up of 21 patients was performed, starting at the beginning of the study. From the selected patients, fecal samples were obtained at days 0, 3, 7, and 28 after treatment. Fecal samples and FMT were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Results. We included 21 patients (13 in the FMT group and 8 in the FMT-L group). Overall, both groups had a reduction in bowel movements per day, from 8.6 to 3.2 in the first 48 h (62.7% reduction, ). No severe adverse reactions or recurrences were recorded. Firmicutes were the most abundant phylum in donors. A low relative abundance of Proteobacteria was detected and mostly found in patients even at higher proportions than the donor. The donor’s pool also had relatively few Bacteroidetes, and some patients showed a higher abundance of this phylum. Based on the ANOSIM R values, there is a significant difference between the microbial communities of basal samples and samples collected on day 7 () and at day 28 (0.041). Conclusion. Fecal microbiota transplant by capsules was clinically and genomically similar between traditional FMT and enriched FMT with Lactobacillus spp. Restoration of bacterial diversity and resolution of dysbiosis at days 7 and 28 were observed. Patients with a first episode of recurrence treated with FMT had an excellent response without severe adverse events; FMT should be considered as an early treatment during R-CDI.
Deficiency of Dietary Fiber in Slc5a8-Null Mice Promotes Bacterial Dysbiosis and Alters Colonic Epithelial Transcriptome towards Proinflammatory Milieu
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation in the intestinal tract due to disruption of the symbiotic relationship between the host immune system and microbiota. Various factors alter the gut microbiota which lead to dysbiosis; in particular, diet and dietary fibers constitute important determinants. Dietary fiber protects against IBD; bacteria ferment these dietary fibers in colon and generate short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which mediate the anti-inflammatory actions of dietary fibers. SLC5A8 is a high-affinity transporter in the apical membrane of colonic epithelium which mediates the entry of SCFAs from the lumen into cells in Na+-coupled manner. Due to the unique transport kinetics, the function of the transporter becomes important only under conditions of low dietary fiber intake. Here, we have examined the impact of dietary fiber deficiency on luminal microbial composition and transcriptomic profile in colonic epithelium in wild-type (WT) and Slc5a8-null (KO) mice. We fed WT and KO mice with fiber-containing diet (FC-diet) or fiber-free diet (FF-diet) and analyzed the luminal bacterial composition by sequencing 16S rRNA gene in feces. Interestingly, results showed significant differences in the microbial community depending on dietary fiber content and on the presence or absence of Slc5a8. There were also marked differences in the transcriptomic profile of the colonic epithelium depending on the dietary fiber content and on the presence or absence of Slc5a8. We conclude that absence of fiber in diet in KO mice causes bacterial dysbiosis and alters gene expression in the colon that is conducive for inflammation.
Association between Hemoglobin Glycation Index and NAFLD in Chinese Nondiabetic Individuals
Purpose. Limited studies have preliminarily identified a positive association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hemoglobin glycation index (HGI). However, this association has not been fully established. We aim to investigate the association between NAFLD and HGI in Chinese nondiabetic individuals and to construct a risk score based on HGI to predict a person’s risk of NAFLD. Methods. After strict exclusion criteria, 5,903 individuals were included in this retrospective cross-sectional study. We randomly selected 1,967 subjects in the enrollment to obtain an equation of linear regression, which was used to calculate predicted HbA1c and drive HGI. The other subjects were classified into four categories according to HGI level (≤−0.22, −0.21∼0.02, 0.03∼0.28, and ≥0.29). All subjects retrospectively reviewed the baseline characteristics, laboratory examinations, and abdominal ultrasonography. Results. The prevalence of NAFLD in this population was 20.7%, which increases along with the growth of HGI levels (). Adjusted to multiple factors, this trend still remained significant (OR: 1.172 (95% CI, 1.074–1.279)). The combined NAFLD risk score based on HGI resulted in an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.85 provided sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and a negative predictive value for NAFLD of 84.4%, 71.3%, 65.0%, and 88.0%, respectively. Conclusions. NAFLD is independently associated with HGI levels in Chinese nondiabetic individuals. And, NAFLD risk score may be used as one of the risk predictors of NAFLD in nondiabetic population.
A Randomized Placebo-Controlled N-of-1 Trial: The Effect of Proton Pump Inhibitor in the Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Background. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most frequent chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is defined as a condition developed when the reflux of gastric contents causes troublesome symptoms (heartburn and regurgitation). This requires adequate treatment since it can lead to long-term complications including esophagus adenocarcinoma. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are generally used to treat GERD due to their high-security profile and efficiency on most patients. However, recurrent reflux despite initial treatment is frequent. N-of-1 trial is a study that allows the identification of the best treatment for each patient. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of standard dose with double dosage of esomeprazole, to improve the GERD symptoms in a single patient. Methods. A single-patient trial, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, was carried out from September 25th, 2012, to April 26th, 2013. It included one outpatient at the gastroenterology service in a fourth-level hospital, diagnosed with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD). Yet, his symptoms were heartburn and reflux, and his endoscopic results were normal esophageal mucosa, without hiatal hernia, though pathological pH values. A no-obese male without any tobacco or alcohol usage received esomeprazole 40 mg/day and 40 mg/bid for 24 weeks. A standardized gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire (GerdQ) was used weekly to evaluate symptom frequency and severity. The consumption of 90% of the capsules was considered as an adequate treatment adherence. D’agostino–Pearson and Wilcoxon test were used to determine normal or nonnormal distribution and compare both treatments, respectively, both with a significant statistical difference of . Results. The patient completed the study with 96% of adherence. The double dosage of esomeprazole did not improve the control of symptoms compared with the standard dosage. Mean symptomatic score was 9.5±0.5 and 10.2±0.6 for each treatment, respectively (). Conclusion. There was no significant improvement in the patient GERD symptoms increasing the dose of oral esomeprazole during the 6 months of study. N-of-1 trials in chronic pathologies including GERD are recommended due to their potential value as systematic methods that evaluate therapies without strong scientific evidence.