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Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology publishes studies of areas related to medical, surgical, pathological, biochemical and physiological aspects of gastroenterology and hepatology.
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Electroacupuncture Relieves Suppression of Autophagy in Interstitial Cells of Cajal of Diabetic Gastroparesis Rats
Background. The incidence of diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) is mainly blamed to abnormity of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Autophagy could degrade damaged proteins and organelles to keep intracellular homeostasis, and it could directly influence structure and number of cells. In this study, we aimed to figure out the relationship between DGP and autophagy of ICCs. Methods. Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal control group (NC, 10) and modeling group (50). Rats in the modeling group were injected 2% streptozotocin (STZ) and fed with high-glucose and high-fat diet for 8 weeks in order to establish DGP rat model. After modeling, 30 successfully modeled rats were randomly selected and separated into diabetic gastroparesis group (DGP, 10), GDP rats with electroacupuncture group (EA, 10), and GDP rats with metoclopramide group (MP, 10). When the intervention was completed, blood glucose was measured by ONE TOUCH glucometer and gastrointestinal propulsive rate was detected through measuring optical density. Autophagosomes were observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM). The expression of LC3 protein and P62 protein was measured by Western blot. When ICCs were transfected with GFP-RFP-LC3 plasmid, autophagy flux was observed by laser scanning confocal microscope. Results. (1) After intervention, compared with blood glucose of rats in the NC group, all of the DGP, EA, and MP groups were remarkably increased (); compared with the DGP group, the blood glucose of the EA and MP groups was decreased greatly (). (2) Compared with gastrointestinal propulsive rate of rats in the NC group, no matter gastric emptying rate or intestinal propulsive rate, the EA and MP groups were significantly reduced (); compared with the NC group, gastric emptying rate and intestinal propulsive rate in the EA group were obviously decreased (, ); compared with the DGP group, the EA and MP groups were increased significantly (). (3) Compared with the NC group, intensity of RFP and GFP in the DGP group was obviously increased (, ), in other words, the DGP group accompanying suppression of autophagy; compared with the DGP group, intensity of RFP and GFP in the EA group was decreased significantly (, ). (4) There was no autophagosome in the NC group, and an autophagosome existed in the DGP group. Both EA and MP groups found autophagy. (5) When coming to LC3 II/LC3 I, compared with the NC group, the ratio was enhanced in the DGP and EA groups (, ); compared with the DGP group, LC3 II/LC3 I was dramatically decreased in the MP and EA groups (). (6) As the substrate of degradation, the expression of P62 in the other three groups was significantly increased () compared with the NC group; compared with the DGP group, the amount of P62 in the EA and MP groups was reduced greatly (). Conclusion. The impaired autophagy flux in ICCs is the pathological basis of diabetic gastroparesis, blaming to fusion dysfunction of autophagosome and lysosome and electroacupuncture (EA) could ease the suppression of autophagy to improve gastric motility.
Gastric Xanthoma Associated with Gastric Cancer Development: An Updated Review
Gastric xanthelasma (GX) is a rare tumor-like lesion customarily found as an incidental finding due to its asymptomatic appearance. Grossly, it is a well-marked yellow-white plaque created in the lamina propria by microscopic clusters of foamy macrophages. Xanthelasma is rarely correlated with gastric hyperplastic polyps; gastric xanthomas are rare benign lesions that appear to be associated with inflammation of the gastric mucosa. Etiopathogenesis is also unclear, but it has been suggested to be involved in chronic gastritis, infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. The gastric xanthoma prevalence ranges from 0.23% to 7%. Orth first described the condition in 1887. It has been found that xanthelasmas are associated with chronic gastritis, gastrointestinal anastomosis, intestinal metaplasia, and H. pylori infection. These lesions predispose patients to gastric cancer conditions. Xanthoma (GX) was reported to be a predictive marker for early gastric cancer. However, the effectiveness of these scores and xanthoma (GX) as predictive markers for early gastric cancer detected after H. pylori eradication remains unknown.
Bredemolic Acid Ameliorates Selected Liver Function Biomarkers in a Diet-Induced Prediabetic Rat Model
Background. Prediabetes is an intermediary hyperglycaemic state that precedes type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in which abnormal metabolism of glucose and lipids occurs in organs such as the liver. Evidence has shown that, about 70% of T2DM patients develop hepatic dysfunction which is found to begin during the prediabetic stage. Bredemolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene, has been found to improve insulin sensitivity in diet-induced prediabetic rats. The effects of this compound on liver function, however, are unknown. This study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of BA on liver function in high fat-high carbohydrate (HFHC) diet-induced prediabetic rats. Methods. Thirty-six (36) male rats that weigh 150 g–180 g were divided into two groups, the non-prediabetic (n = 6) and the prediabetic groups (n = 30) that were fed normal diet (ND) and HFHC diet, respectively. The prediabetic rats were further subdivided into five groups (n = 6) and treated with either BA (80 mg/kg) or metformin (MET, 500 mg/kg) every third day for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, blood samples and the liver were collected for biochemical analysis. Results. The induction of prediabetes resulted in increased release of liver enzymes (AST and ALT), increased liver glycogen and triglyceride, lipid peroxidation, and decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c) and antioxidant enzymes. However, the administration of BA decreased liver enzyme concentrations, decreased hepatic oxidative stress, and improved antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPx. Conclusion. BA administration improved liver function in diet-induced prediabetic rats in the presence or absence of dietary intervention.
A Potential Linking between Vitamin D and Adipose Metabolic Disorders
Vitamin D has been discovered centuries ago, and current studies have focused on the biological effects of vitamin D on adipogenesis. Besides its role in calcium homeostasis and energy metabolism, vitamin D is also involved in the regulation of development and process of metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue is a major storage depot of vitamin D. This review summarized studies on the relationship between vitamin D and adipogenesis and furthermore focuses on adipose metabolic disorders. We reviewed the biological roles and functionalities of vitamin D, the correlation between vitamin D and adipose tissue, the effect of vitamin D on adipogenesis, and adipose metabolic diseases. Vitamin D is associated with adipogenesis, and vitamin D supplements can reduce the burden caused by metabolic diseases. The review provides new insights and basis for medical therapy on adipose metabolic diseases.
Hepatitis C Virus Screening of High-Risk Patients in a Canadian Emergency Department
Background. Approximately 0.7% of the Canadian population is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and many individuals are unaware of their infection. Our objectives were to utilize an emergency department (ED) based point-of-care (POC) HCV screening test to describe our local population and estimate the proportion of high-risk patients in our population with undiagnosed HCV. Methods. A convenience sample of medically stable patients (≥18 years) presenting to a community ED in Calgary, AB, between April and July 2018 underwent rapid clinical screening for HCV risk factors, including history of injection drug use, healthcare in endemic countries, and other recognized criteria. High-risk patients were offered POC HCV testing. Antibody-positive patients underwent HCV-RNA testing and were linked to hepatology care. The primary outcome was the proportion of new HCV diagnoses in the high-risk population. Results. Of the 999 patients screened by survey, 247 patients (24.7%) were high-risk and eligible for testing. Of these, 123 (49.8%) were from HCV-endemic countries, while 63 (25.5%) and 31 (12.6%) patients endorsed a history of incarceration and intravenous drug use (IVDU), respectively. A total of 144 (58.3%) eligible patients agreed to testing. Of these, 6 patients were POC-positive (4.2%, CI 0.9–7.4%); all 6 had antibodies detected on confirmatory lab testing and 4 had detectable HCV-RNA viral loads in follow-up. Notably, 103 (41.7%) patients declined POC testing. Interpretation. Among 144 high-risk patients who agreed to testing, the rate of undiagnosed HCV infection was 4.2%, and the rate of undiagnosed HCV infection with detectable viral load was 2.8%. Many patients with high-risk clinical criteria refused POC testing. It is unknown if tested and untested groups have the same disease prevalence. This study shows that ED HCV screening is feasible and that a small number of previously undiagnosed patients can be identified and linked to potentially life-changing care.
Comparison of the Effects of TIPS versus BRTO on Bleeding Gastric Varices: A Meta-Analysis
Background and Aim. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a threat to patients with gastric varices (GVs). Previous studies have concluded that both transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) are effective treatments for patients with GV. We aimed to compare the efficiency and outcomes of these two procedures in GV patients through meta-analysis. Methods. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched using the keywords: GV, bleeding, TIPS, and BRTO to identify relevant randomized controlled trials and cohort studies. The overall survival (OS) rate, imminent haemostasis rate, rebleeding rate, technical success rate, procedure complication rate (hepatic encephalopathy and aggravated ascites), and Child-Pugh score were evaluated. Randomized clinical trials and cohort studies comparing TIPS and BRTO for GV due to portal hypertension were included in our meta-analysis. Two independent reviewers performed data extraction and assessed the study quality. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate risk ratios (RRs), mean differences (MDs), and 95% CIs using random effects models. Results. A total of nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There was a significant difference between TIPS and BRTO in the OS rate (RR, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.98); ) and rebleeding rate (RR, 2.61 (95% CI, 1.75 to 3.90); ). TIPS had a higher incidence rate of hepatic encephalopathy (RR, 16.11 (95% CI, 7.13 to 36.37); ). There was no significant difference between TIPS and BRTO in the immediate haemostasis rate (RR, 0.99 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.10); ), technical success rate (RR, 1.06 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.16); ), aggravated ascites rate (RR, 0.60 (95% CI, 0.33 to 1.09); ), or Child-Pugh change (MD, 0.22 (95% CI, −0.21 to 0.65); ). Conclusions. In this meta-analysis, BRTO brought more benefits to patients, with a higher OS rate and lower rebleeding rate. BRTO is a feasible method for GVB.