Response Rate and Impact on Lipid Profiles of Obeticholic Acid Treatment for Patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis: A Meta-AnalysisRead the full article
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology publishes studies of areas related to medical, surgical, pathological, biochemical and physiological aspects of gastroenterology and hepatology.
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Diseases: The Heart of the Matter
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the most frequent cause of liver disease worldwide, comprising a plethora of conditions, ranging from steatosis to end-stage liver disease. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been associated with NAFLD and CVD-related events represent the main cause of death in patients with NAFLD, surpassing liver-related mortality. This association is not surprising as NAFLD has been considered a part of the metabolic syndrome and has been related to numerous CVD risk factors, namely, insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, chronic kidney disease, and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, both NAFLD and CVD present similar pathophysiological mechanisms, such as increased visceral adiposity, altered lipid metabolism, increased oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation that could explain their association. Whether NAFLD increases the risk for CVD or these diagnostic entities represent distinct manifestations of the metabolic syndrome has not yet been clarified. This review focuses on the relation between NAFLD and the spectrum of CVD, considering the pathophysiological mechanisms, risk factors, current evidence, and future directions.
Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation Potential Risk Factors in Hepatocellular Carcinoma via Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization: A Retrospective Research
Background. To explore the clinical characteristics of reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The pathological correlation of prognosis and hepatitis B virus reactivation has been given detailed analyses in our research. Methods. A total of 108 related TACE-treated HCC clinical data from January 2008 to January 2016 was gleaned and involved in this retrospective analysis. To lucubrate the nuance of survival rates between HBV reactivated group and HBV nonreactivated group, clinical data of each patient was analyzed in detail and refined the retrospective studies. Results. HBV reactivation occurred in 42 patients with a proportion of 38.9%. The detected HBV DNA level ≥104 in patients showed a reactivation rate of 65.8% (25/38), which was significantly higher than the HBV DNA < 104 cases (24.3%, 17/70). Research data revealed a conspicuous lower cellular immunity () and better 2-year survival rate () in the HBV-reactivated group when compared to the nonreactivated group. Conclusion. Some of the patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma possibly had HBV reactivation at post-TACE-therapy. And the predominant risk factors of HBV reactivation are positive HBV test and immunosuppression. Our study suggested that HBV reactivation at post-TACE-therapy is an independent predictor of poor prognosis and low survival rate as well as a crucial reason for poor prognosis and lower survival rate, which indirectly proved that it is urgent to necessitate the antiviral therapy and immune enhancer in improving the curative effect and prognosis of HCC patients.
Association between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Endocrinopathies: Clinical Implications
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a rising prevalence worldwide. Its potential for evolution towards liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as associations with extrahepatic manifestations, represents a double burden for patients and physicians alike. Recently, there has been increasing evidence of the association between NAFLD and a number of endocrinopathies, such as hypothyroidism, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), hypopituitarism, growth hormone deficiency (GHD), hypogonadism, and hypercortisolism. Definite correlations are supported by clear evidence so far, but further studies are needed in order to completely clarify the pathogenic mechanisms and, especially, to identify therapeutic implications. In this review, we present the main relationships between NAFLD and endocrinopathies, emphasizing the reciprocal causality, evolutive interconnections, and current clinical scenarios of presentations of which the clinicians should be aware.
How Much Time Should Be Waited and What Are the Main Findings to Evaluate the Hepatocellular Carcinoma Response to Regorafenib? A Real-Life Experience
Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a relevant cause of mortality worldwide, mainly among patients who have a prior liver disease. In spite of clear recommendations regarding surveillance and screening methods, most patients are still diagnosed only when they are no longer candidates to curative treatment modalities, while others do not achieve the goals of such treatments, thus increasing the need of anticancer drugs. Moreover, when cirrhotic patients begin to receive these drugs, many types of adverse events are seen as a reason to withdrawal, even when there are findings suggesting a good response to the treatment. Case Summary. This case report is about a cirrhotic patient who received many types of treatment, from surgery and chemoembolization during early stages to first- and second-line systemic therapy when the disease turned to be advanced. Since he had no signs of liver dysfunction and suffered tumor progression during sorafenib treatment, regorafenib was initiated. The main findings that make this case important are the adverse events after taking this second-line agent, which would certainly be considered unacceptable and would lead to the drug withdrawal. The reasons why regorafenib was maintained are explained based on clinical and imaging findings, showing how this decision led to an excellent response. Conclusions. The knowledge of the main adverse events described in the pilot clinical trials can avoid unnecessary withdrawal of regorafenib. In addition, some clinical and imaging findings can be deemed as predictors of good response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
The Relationship between Helicobacter pylori Infection of the Gallbladder and Chronic Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is proved to be the main pathogenic agent of various diseases, including chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, and gastric cancer. In addition, chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis are common worldwide, which are supposed to increase the total mortality of patients. Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between H. pylori infection of the gallbladder and chronic cholecystitis/cholelithiasis still remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of overall studies to investigate the relationship between H. pylori infection of the gallbladder and chronic cholecystitis/cholelithiasis. Two researchers searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases to obtain all related and eligible studies published before July 2020. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the random-effects model. Subgroup analysis, heterogeneity, publication bias, and sensitivity analysis were also conducted. Twenty studies were included in the meta-analysis, involving 1735 participants and 1197 patients with chronic cholecystitis/cholelithiasis. Helicobacter species infection of the gallbladder was positively correlated with increased risk of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, especially H. pylori (OR = 3.05; 95% CI, 1.81–5.14; I2 = 23.5%). Besides, country-based subgroup analysis also showed a positive correlation between the gallbladder H. pylori positivity and chronic cholecystitis/cholelithiasis risk. For Asian and non-Asian country studies, the ORs were 4.30 (95% CI, 1.76–10.50; I2 = 37.4%) and 2.13 (95% CI, 1.23–3.70; I2 = 0.0%), respectively. The association was more obvious using the bile sample and urease gene primer. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provided evidence that there is a positive correlation between H. pylori infection in the gallbladder and increased risk of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis.
Imaging Software-Based Sarcopenia Assessment in Gastroenterology: Evolution and Clinical Meaning
Sarcopenia is gaining attention as a negative prognostic factor in different fields of medicine, including chronic liver failure. However, the assessment of sarcopenia in patients with liver diseases is often neglected due to unawareness of reliable tools and methods and thus is limited to research studies. Cross-sectional imaging is a diffuse diagnostic tool and is commonly performed in patients with chronic liver failure. The last advancements in radiology image analysis using dedicated software allow an easy and standardized method to assess skeletal muscle volume. Several measures can be obtained from cross-sectional imaging analysis to evaluate sarcopenia in patients affected by chronic liver disease. We aimed to review the recent advances in imaging-based sarcopenia assessment, in particular in patients with chronic liver diseases. As a result, we found that the skeletal muscle index (SMI) seems to be a reliable method to assess sarcopenia in cirrhotic patients. Even if further studies are needed to validate proper cut-offs for each clinical endpoint, physicians are invited to consider the assessment of sarcopenia in the work-up of patients with chronic liver disease.