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Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume 14, Suppl D, Pages 112D-121D

Update on Peripheral Arterial Vasodilation, Ascites and Hepatorenal Syndrome in Cirrhosis

Mladen Knotek, Boris Rogachev, and Robert W Schrier

Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA

Received 8 February 1999; Accepted 16 February 1999

Copyright © 2000 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In cirrhosis of the liver, according to the peripheral arterial vasodilation hypothesis, relative underfilling of the arterial tree triggers a neurohumoral response (activation of renin-angiotensinaldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, nonosmotic release of vasopressin) aimed at restoring circulatory integrity by promoting renal sodium and water retention. Evidence has accumulated for a major role of increased vascular production of nitric oxide as the primary cause of arterial vasodilation in cirrhosis. Ascites is a common complication in cirrhosis. Treatment of ascites consists of a low salt diet with diuretics, and paracentesis together with plasma volume expanders in diuretic-resistant patients. Progression of cirrhosis may result in hepatorenal syndrome, a state of functional renal failure that carries an ominous prognosis. Orthotopic liver transplantation has remained the only curative treatment for patients with advanced liver disease; other modalities such as transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt or vasopressin analogues may serve as a bridge to transplantation. Another complication of decompensated cirrhosis is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, the incidence of which can be reduced by primary or secondary antibiotic prophylaxis by using orally active antibiotics.