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Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume 17, Issue 7, Pages 425-432
Original Article

Lymphocytic and Collagenous Colitis: The Emerging Entity of Microscopic Colitis. An Update on Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management

Ayman A Abdo, Stefan J Urbanski, and Paul L Beck

Division of Gastroenterology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Copyright © 2003 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Microscopic colitis (MC) encompasses the two morphologically distinct entities of collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC). MC was first described less than 30 years ago but is presently recognized as a relatively common cause of chronic diarrhea in the adult population. Remarkably, up to 10% of adults who have a colonoscopy for the investigation of chronic diarrhea, and have endoscopically normal appearing mucosa, may have MC. Patients with MC generally present with chronic diarrhea, which can be associated with cramping and bloating. Endoscopic and radiological examinations are usually normal. Histological assessment reveals inflammation consisting predominantly of lymphocytic infiltration, and a thickened subepithelial collagen band is diagnostic of CC. Both LC and CC can be associated with autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease, diabetes, arthritis and thyroiditis, yet the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis remain unclear. Emerging studies suggest that a stepwise approach be taken in the medical management of MC. This approach includes antidiarrheal agents and stopping of any offending agents; budesonide or bismuth subsalicylate; and cholestyramine or 5-acetylsalicylic acid agents. In resistant cases, oral corticosteroids and other immune modulatory therapy have been used.