Original Article | Open Access
Justin Cheung, Karen J Goodman, Robert Bailey, Richard N Fedorak, John Morse, Mario Millan, Tom Guzowski, Sander Veldhuyzen van Zanten, "A Randomized Trial of Topical Anesthesia Comparing Lidocaine Versus Lidocaine Plus Xylometazoline for Unsedated Transnasal Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy", Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 24, Article ID 154791, 5 pages, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/154791
A Randomized Trial of Topical Anesthesia Comparing Lidocaine Versus Lidocaine Plus Xylometazoline for Unsedated Transnasal Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
BACKGROUND: The optimal topical anesthesia regimen for unsedated transnasal endoscopy is unknown. The addition of a nasal decongestant, such as xylometazoline (X), to a topical anesthestic may improve patient comfort.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of lidocaine (L) versus L plus X (LX) for anesthesia in unsedated transnasal endoscopy.METHODS: Consecutive participants of the Aklavik Helicobacter pylori project were prospectively randomly assigned to receive LX or L for unsedated transnasal 4.9 mm ultrathin endoscopy. The primary outcome was overall procedure discomfort on a validated 10-point visual analogue scale (1 = no discomfort, 10 = severe discomfort). Secondary outcomes included pain, endoscope insertion difficulty, gagging, adverse events and encounter times. Results were presented as mean ± SD, difference in mean, 95% CI.RESULTS: A total of 181 patients were randomly assigned to receive LX (n=94) and L (n=87). Baseline characteristics between the two groups were similar (mean age 40 years, 59% women). Overall, patient procedural discomfort with LX and L were 4.2±2.4 versus 3.9±2.1, respectively (0.29; 95% CI −0.39 to 0.96). Transnasal insertion difficulty was significantly lower with LX than with L (2.4±2.1 versus 3.2±2.8, respectively [−0.80; 95% CI −1.54 to −0.06]). Compared with L, the use of LX was associated with significantly less time needed to apply anesthesia (2.4±1.8 min versus 3.5±2.2 min, respectively [−1.10; 95% CI −1.71 min to −0.50 min]) and less time for insertion (3.2±1.8 min versus 3.9±2.2 min, respectively [−0.70 min; 95% CI −1.30 min to −0.10 min]). Epistaxis was rare but occurred less frequently with LX (1.1%) than with L (4.6%) (P=0.19).CONCLUSIONS: LX did not improve patient comfort for transnasal endoscopy compared with L alone. However, LX was associated with less difficulty with endoscope transnasal insertion and reduced insertion time. Further studies on the optimal regimen and dosing of anesthesia are required.
Copyright © 2010 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.