Mycophenolate Mofetil for the Treatment of Autoimmune Hepatitis in Patients Refractory or Intolerant to Conventional Therapy
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by hepatocellular inflammation often progressing to cirrhosis. Standard treatment consists of corticosteroids and azathioprine. For the 20% of patients with refractory disease or those who are intolerant to medication, there is no standardized treatment.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as an alternative therapy for autoimmune hepatitis.METHODS: The present retrospective study identified all patients with autoimmune hepatitis who were treated with MMF over a 10-year period at the Henry Ford Hospital (Michigan, USA). These patients were evaluated for tolerance and response.RESULTS: Of the 90 patients participating in the study, 48% had a complete response, 32% experienced relapses and 21% were refractory. MMF was initiated in 21 patients – 12 (57%) for refractory disease and nine (43%) for medication intolerance. Of the 12 patients converted for refractory disease, all showed biochemical improvement but none had a complete response. Of the patients converted due to intolerance, 88% maintained complete remission. For all patients converted to MMF, there was a mean decrease in steroid dose from 18.9 mg/day to 7.8 mg/day (P=0.01).CONCLUSIONS: In patients with autoimmune hepatitis who were intolerant to conventional therapy, MMF was well tolerated, with 88% of patients maintained in remission. MMF did not induce remission in those refractory to conventional therapy; however, it resulted in a significant decrease in steroid use. Prospective studies are needed to better assess the role of MMF as an alternative therapy.