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Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 83-88
Original Article

Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis: A single-Centre Experience and Summary of Existing Studies

Jennifer Chaulk,1 Michelle Carbonneau,1 Hina Qamar,1 Adam Keough,1 Hsiu-Ju Chang,1 Mang Ma,1 Deepali Kumar,2 and Puneeta Tandon1

1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Received 22 September 2013; Accepted 9 December 2013

Copyright © 2014 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the most prevalent bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis. Although studies from Europe have reported significant rates of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, there are limited SBP-specific data from centres in North America.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of, predictors for and clinical impact of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant SBP at a Canadian tertiary care centre, and to summarize the data in the context of the existing literature.

METHODS: SBP patients treated with both antibiotics and albumin therapy at a Canadian tertiary care hospital between 2003 and 2011 were retrospectively identified. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of third-generation cephalosporin resistance and mortality.

RESULTS: In 192 patients, 25% of infections were nosocomial. Forty per cent (77 of 192) of infections were culture positive; of these, 19% (15 of 77) were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. The prevalence of cephalosporin resistance was 8% with community-acquired infections, 17% with health care-associated infections and 41% with nosocomial acquisition. Nosocomial acquisition of infection was the only predictor of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (OR 4.0 [95% CI 1.04 to 15.2]). Thirty-day mortality censored for liver transplantation was 27% (50 of 184). In the 77 culture-positive patients, resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (OR 5.3 [1.3 to 22]) and the Model for End-stage Live Disease score (OR 1.14 [1.04 to 1.24]) were independent predictors of 30-day mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant SBP is a common diagnosis and has an effect on clinical outcomes. In an attempt to reduce the mortality associated with resistance to empirical therapy, high-risk subgroups should receive broader empirical antibiotic coverage.