Nonmedicinal Interventions in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Unhealthy diet and lack of physical exercise are responsible for fat accumulation in the liver, which may lead to liver disease. Histologically, the severity of the disease has two stages: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is defined by the presence of steatosis with no evidence of cellular injury such as hepatocyte ballooning. NASH is a distinct entity from NAFLD, and is characterized by the presence of inflammation with hepatocytes damage, with or without fibrosis. While several therapeutic strategies have been proposed to improve this condition, the present review aims to discuss nonmedicinal interventions used to reduce liver involvement or to prevent the disease altogether. The authors investigated dietary patterns and vitamin deficiencies associated with NAFLD, and their role in enhancing disease severity. Additionally, they reviewed the role of exercise and the use of interventions, such as as intragastric balloon and bariatric surgery, for improving disease progression. The authors propose monitoring disease progression or repair by following changes in cytoadipokine levels.