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Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume 2017, Article ID 5127178, 8 pages
Research Article

Establishing a Porcine Model of Small for Size Syndrome following Liver Resection

1Department of General, Visceral, and Transplantation Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
2Department of General Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Arianeb Mehrabi; ed.grebledieh-inu.dem@ibarhem.benaira

Received 20 June 2017; Accepted 15 August 2017; Published 29 August 2017

Academic Editor: Pierluigi Toniutto

Copyright © 2017 Mohammad Golriz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Small for size syndrome (SFSS) is responsible for a high proportion of mortalities and morbidities following extended liver resection. Aim. The aim of this study was to establish a porcine model of SFSS. Methods. Twenty-four Landrace pigs underwent liver resection with a remnant liver volume of 50% (group A, ), 25% (group B, ), and 15% (group C, ). After resection, the animals were followed up for 8 days and clinical, laboratory, and histopathological outcomes were evaluated. Results. The survival rate was significantly lower in group C compared with the other groups (). The international normalized ratio, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase levels increased shortly after surgery in groups B and C, but no change was observed in group A ( for all analyses). The histopathological findings in group A were mainly mild mitoses, in group B severe mitoses and hepatocyte ballooning, moderate congestion, and hemorrhage, along with mild necrosis, and in group C extended tissue damage with severe necrosis, hemorrhage, and congestion. Conclusions. Combination of clinical, laboratory, and histopathological evaluations is needed to confirm the diagnosis of SFSS. 75% liver resection in porcine model results in SFSS. 85% liver resection causes irreversible liver failure.