Table 4: Complementary investigations in the patients with Jackhammer esophagus.

InvestigationsNormalAbnormal
(available results)

Esogastroduodenoscopy (26)18(i) Hiatal hernias (3)
(ii) Esophageal dilatation (2)
(iii) LES hypertonia impression (2)
(iv) Longitudinal striae (1)

Esophageal biopsies (13)11(i) Lymphocytic exocytosis (1)
(ii) Esophagitis without eosinophilia (1)

24 hours’ pH-monitoring (10)5(i) Pathological gastroesophageal reflux (4)
(ii) Hypersensitive esophagus (1)

Barium swallow (8)4(i) Spastic esophageal contractions (3)
(ii) Incomplete relaxation of the cricopharyngeal muscle (1)