Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume 2019, Article ID 6415757, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6415757
Research Article

Impact of Chronic Statins Use on the Development of Esophagitis in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

1Gastroenterology and Endoscopy United, The Nazareth Hospital, EMMS, Nazareth, Bar Ilan University, Tel-Aviv, Israel
2Institute of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Galilee Medical Center, Bar Ilan Faculty of Medicine, Safed, Israel
3Cardiology Department., Haemek Medical Center, Afula, Israel
4Department of Medicine ‘B’ Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel
5Internal Medicine Department A, Badeh Barouch Medical Center, Poria, Israel

Correspondence should be addressed to Tawfik Khoury; moc.liamtoh@1yruohkkifwat

Received 25 September 2018; Revised 21 December 2018; Accepted 2 January 2019; Published 3 February 2019

Academic Editor: Armand Abergel

Copyright © 2019 Tawfik Khoury et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Agreus, K. Svardsudd, N. J. Talley, M. P. Jones, and G. Tibblin, “Natural history of gastroesophageal reflux disease and functional abdominal disorders: a population-based study,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 96, pp. 2905–2914, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Ronkainen, P. Aro, T. Storskrubb et al., “High prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and esophagitis with or without symptoms in the general adult Swedish population: a Kalixanda study report,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 40, pp. 275–285, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  3. T. Yamasaki, C. Hemond, M. Eisa, S. Ganocy, and R. Fass, “The changing epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease: are patients getting younger?” Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 559–569, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. F. W. Wang, M. S. Tu, H. Y. Chuang, H. C. Yu, L. C. Cheng, and P. I. Hsu, “Erosive esophagitis in asymptomatic subjects: risk factors,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1320–1324, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. T. Nozu and H. Komiyama, “Clinical characteristics of asymptomatic esophagitis,” Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 43, pp. 27–31, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  6. J. Dent, N. D. Yeomans, M. Mackinnon et al., “Omeprazole v ranitidine for prevention of relapse in reflux oesophagitis. A controlled double blind trial of their efficacy and safety,” Gut, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 590–598, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. L. Lundell, L. Backman, P. Ekstrom et al., “Prevention of relapse of reflux esophagitis after endoscopic healing: the efficacy and safety of omeprazole compared with ranitidine,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 26, pp. 248–256, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  8. D. Armstrong, J. R. Bennett, A. L. Blum et al., “The endoscopic assessment of esophagitis: A progress report on observer agreement,” Gastroenterology, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 85–92, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. R. Lundell, J. Dent, J. R. Bennett et al., “Endoscopic assessment of oesophagitis: clinical and functional correlates and further validation of the Los Angeles classification,” Gut, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 172–180, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. van Pinxteren, M. E. Numans, P. A. Bonis, and J. Lau, “Short-term treatment with proton pump inhibitors, H2-receptor antagonists and prokinetics for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease-like symptoms and endoscopy negative reflux disease,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Article ID CD002095, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. Bytzer, R. Jones, N. Vakil et al., “Limited ability of the proton-pump inhibitor test to identify patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 10, pp. 1360–1366, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  12. T. Hershcovici and R. Fass, “Nonerosive Reflux Disease (NERD)—an update,” Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 8–21, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. D. S. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. M. Park, D. I. Kim, Y. W. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “Preoperative statins are associated with a reduced risk of postoperative delirium following vascular surgery,” PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 3, Article ID e0192841, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. Y. X. Zheng, P. C. Zhou, R. R. Zhou, and X. G. Fan, “The benefit of statins in chronic hepatitis C patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” European Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 29, pp. 759–766, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  15. J. K. Liao and U. Laufs, “Pleiotropic effects of statins,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 45, pp. 89–118, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  16. B. Kwak, F. Mulhaupt, S. Myit, and F. Mach, “Statins as a newly recognized type of immunomodulator,” Nature Medicine, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1399–1402, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. Weitz-Schmidt, K. Welzenbach, V. Brinkmann et al., “Statins selectively inhibit leukocyte function antigen-1 by binding to a novel regulatory integrin site,” Nature Medicine, vol. 7, pp. 687–692, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  18. A. Wang, H. A. Wakelee, A. K. Aragaki et al., “Protective effects of statins in cancer: should they be prescribed for high-risk patients?” Current Atherosclerosis Reports, vol. 18, no. 72, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. M. Janicko, S. Drazilova, D. Pella, J. Fedacko, and P. Jarcuska, “Pleiotropic effects of statins in the diseases of the liver,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 22, no. 27, pp. 6201–6213, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. O. Katz, L. B. Gerson, and M. F. Vela, “Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 308–328, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. B. El-Serag, S. Sweet, C. C. Winchester, and J. Dent, “Update on the epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: A systematic review,” Gut, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 871–880, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. N. J. Shaheen, R. A. Hansen, D. R. Morgan et al., “The burden of gastrointestinal and liver diseases,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 101, pp. 2128–2138, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  23. C. Baigent, A. Keech, P. M. Kearney et al., “Efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statins,” The Lancet, vol. 366, no. 9493, pp. 1267–1278, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. M. A. Albert, E. Danielson, N. Rifai, and P. M. Ridker, “Effect of statin therapy on C-reactive protein levels: the pravastatin inflammation/CRP evaluation (PRINCE): a randomized trial and cohort study,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 286, no. 1, pp. 64–70, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. K. Jain and P. M. Ridker, “Anti-inflammatory effects of statins: clinical evidence and basic mechanisms,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 977–987, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. Fujii, T. Nakabayashi, S. Hashimoto, and H. Kuwano, “Statin use and risk of gastroduodenal ulcer and reflux esophagitis,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 56, no. 91-92, pp. 641–644, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. P. Leung, N. Sattar, A. Crilly et al., “A novel anti-inflammatory role for simvastatin in inflammatory arthritis,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 170, no. 3, pp. 1524–1530, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. S. Rosaida and K.-L. Goh, “Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, reflux oesophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease in a multiracial Asian population: A prospective, endoscopy based study,” European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 495–501, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Lind, T. Havelund, R. Carlsson et al., “Heartburn without oesophagitis: Efficacy of omeprazole therapy and features determining therapeutic response,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 974–979, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Ruth, I. Mansson, and N. Sandberg, “The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of esophageal disorders,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 26, pp. 73–81, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  31. L. Kay and T. Jorgensen, “Epidemiology of upper dyspepsia in a random population. Prevalence, incidence, natural history, and risk factors,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 29, pp. 2–6, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  32. H. B. El-Serag and J. F. Johanson, “Risk factors for the severity of erosive esophagitis in Helicobacter pylori-negative patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 37, pp. 899–904, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  33. S. J. Spechler, S. K. Jain, D. A. Tendler, and R. A. Parker, “Racial differences in the frequency of symptoms and complications of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 16, pp. 1795–1800, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  34. N. S. Buttar and G. W. Falk, “Pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux and Barrett esophagus,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 226–234, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. G. Patti, H. I. Goldberg, M. Arcerito, L. Bortolasi, J. Tong, and L. W. Way, “Hiatal hernia size affects lower esophageal sphincter function, esophageal acid exposure, and the degree of mucosal injury,” The American Journal of Surgery, vol. 171, no. 1, pp. 182–186, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. Ryan, D. J. Hetzel, D. J. Shearman, and A. J. McMichael, “Risk factors for ulcerative reflux oesophagitis: A case-control study,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 306–312, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. M. Voutilainen, P. Sipponen, J.-P. Mecklin, M. Juhola, and M. Färkkilä, “Gastroesophageal reflux disease: Prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and histopathological findings in 1128 consecutive patients referred for endoscopy due to dyspeptic and reflux symptoms,” Digestion, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 6–13, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus