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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume 5, Suppl C, Pages 9C-14C

The Threat of the Emergence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Gram-Positive Pathogens in Canada

Donald E Low, Barbara M Willey, and Allison J McGeer

The Mount Sinai and Princess Margaret Hospitals, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Copyright © 1994 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Since the early 1980s, much attention has been focused on the emergence or resistance in nosocomially acquired Gram-negative pathogens. However, in the 1990s we are witnessing in North America the development and spread or multiple resistance in Gram-positive pathogens in the hospital selling as well as in the community. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci are now endemic in many urban centres in the United States, although less so in Canada. In some states, penicillin -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the community selling has gone from rates of less than 5% in 1988 to 50% in 1994, including: resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. Although these same pathogens have now been identified in Canada, we may still be in a position to limit or prevent their spread.