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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
Volume 17 (2006), Issue 1, Pages 19-26
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2006/835768
Review

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Canadian Infants and Children Younger than Five Years of Age: Recommendations and Expected Benefits

Carol A Mcclure,1 Michael W Ford,2 Jeff B Wilson,3 and Jeff J Aramini3

1Department of Health Management, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada
2Wyeth Canada Inc, Department of Health Economics and Pricing, Markham, Canada
3Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Received 1 April 2005; Accepted 19 November 2005

Copyright © 2006 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae infection may result in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), such as bacteremia, meningitis and bacteremic pneumonia, or in non-IPD, such as pneumonia, sinusitis and otitis media. In June 2001, a heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (Prevnar, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Canada) was approved for use in children in Canada. The objective of the present paper is to review S pneumoniae-induced disease incidence and vaccine recommendations in Canadian infants and children younger than five years of age. Particular attention is given to the expected benefits of vaccination in Canada based on postmarketing data and economic modelling.

METHODS: Searches were performed on PubMed and Web of Science databases and specific Canadian journals using the key words 'pneumococc*', 'vaccine', 'conjugate', 'infant' and 'Canadian'.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: PCV7 appears to be safe and effective against IPD and non-IPD in children younger than five years of age and, more importantly, in children younger than two years of age (who are at highest risk for IPD). An examination of postmarketing data showed a reduction in incidence of pneumococcal disease in age groups that were vaccinated and in older age groups, indicating the likelihood of herd protection. Concurrently, there was a reduction in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant isolates.

CONCLUSIONS: The results from the present review suggest that PCV7 is currently benefiting Canadian children and society by lowering S pneumoniae-associated disease. Additional gains from herd protection and further reductions in antimicrobial resistance will be achieved as more Canadian children younger than five years of age are routinely vaccinated with PCV7.