BACKGROUND: Primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection usually involves one mucosal region.OBJECTIVE: To describe an unusual disseminated HSV-1 infection involving two mucosal sites in a healthy man.RESULTS: Primary HSV infection involved oral and genital mucosa and was associated with viremia, hepatitis and rash. Phylogenetic analysis of genital and oral viruses revealed that the patient was infected by a single HSV-1 strain.CONCLUSION: Use of polymerase chain reaction detection techniques for HSV may identify viremic patients in the absence of obvious immunosuppression.