Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology

Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology / 2009 / Article

Original Article | Open Access

Volume 20 |Article ID 725872 | 6 pages |

Risk Factors for and Outcomes Associated with Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Species Resistant to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins among Patients Admitted to Canadian Hospitals


BACKGROUND: Clinical features associated with Gram-negative bacterial isolates with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC-mediated resistance identified in Canadian hospitals is largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine the demographics, risk factors and outcomes of patients with ESBL- or AmpC-mediated resistant organisms in Canadian hospitals.METHODS: Patients with clinical cultures of Escherichia coli or Klebsiella species were matched with patients with a similar organism but susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins. Molecular identification of the AmpC or ESBL was determined using a combination of polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify variables associated with becoming a case.RESULTS: Eight Canadian hospitals identified 106 cases (ESBL/AmpC) and 106 controls. All risk factors identified in the univariate analysis as a predictor of being an ESBL/AmpC cases at the 0.20 P-value were included in the multivariate analysis. No significant differences in outcomes were observed (unfavourable responses 17% versus 15% and mortality rates 13% versus 7%, P not significant). Multivariate logistic regression found an association of becoming an ESBL/AmpC case with: previous admission to a nursing home (OR 8.28, P=0.01) or acute care facility (OR 1.96, P=0.03), length of stay before infection (OR 3.05, P=0.004), and previous use of first-generation cephalosporins (OR 2.38, P=0.02) or third-generation cephalosporins (OR 4.52, P=0.01). Appropriate antibiotics were more likely to be given to controls (27.0% versus 13.3%, P=0.05) and number of days to appropriate antibiotics was longer for cases (median 2.8 days versus 1.2 days, P=0.05).CONCLUSION: The importance of patient medical history, present admission and antibiotic use should be considered for all E coli or Klebsiella species patients pending susceptibility testing results.

Copyright © 2009 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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