A Single-Centre 10-Year Experience with Candida Bloodstream Infections
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and microbiological features associated with Candida bloodstream infections observed at Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont (Montreal, Quebec) between August 1996 and July 2006.METHODS: Episodes were retrieved from the microbiology laboratory. Different patient episodes and different isolate episodes in the same patient were selected. Antifungal susceptibility was determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute’s (USA) M27A2 method.RESULTS: A total of 190 different episodes of candidemia in 185 patients were identified. Eleven (6%) episodes occurred in outpatients. Candida albicans was identified in the majority of episodes (57%). Its frequency remained stable over the years. The proportion of Candida krusei candidemia episodes increased between 2003 and 2006, but this was not statistically significant. A central venous indwelling catheter or a peripherally inserted central catheter line was present in the majority of patients (167 [88%]). Of the indwelling catheters removed at the time of diagnosis, 39% were positive for Candida species on culture. Overall, voriconazole was the most active agent (the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms was 0.5 mg/L). Resistance to fluconazole was observed in 26 (14%) isolates (C albicans, 4%; versus non-albicans Candida species, 27%; P<0.001). Being on the hematology-oncology unit at the time of diagnosis (adjusted OR 7.8; 95% CI 2.3 to 27.1; P=0.001) and having received fluconazole or itraconazole within the past three months (adjusted OR 8.3; 95% CI 2.8 to 24.4; P<0.001) were significantly associated with resistance to fluconazole in multivariate analysis.CONCLUSIONS: At Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, the frequency and species distribution of blood isolates of Candida remained stable over the past decade. In vitro resistance of C albicans to fluconazole and itraconazole remained minimal; resistance of non-albicans Candida species to fluconazole did not increase significantly. The new antifungal agents all had high in vitro activity against the bloodstream Candida isolates.