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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
Volume 24 (2013), Issue 1, Pages e11-e15
Original Article

Risk of Cytomegalovirus Infection and Disease after Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation in Children

Pierre Alex Crisinel,1 Michel Duval,2 Delphine Thuillard Crisinel,1 Brigitte Mallette,3 Nathalie Bellier,2 Marie-France Vachon,2 Laurence Dedeken,2 Céline Rousseau,3 Bruce Tapiero,1 and Philippe Ovetchkine1

1Infectious Diseases Division, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada
2Onco-Hematology Division, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada
3Department of Microbiology and Immunology CHU Ste-Justine –Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada

Copyright © 2013 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


BACKGROUND: Pediatric data regarding cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in pediatric patients receiving umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation are sparse.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether UCB transplantation increases the risk of CMV infection and disease compared with other graft sources.

METHODS: The medical files of patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at CHU Ste-Justine (Montreal, Quebec) from April 2000 to December 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess the effect of potential predictors of outcomes.

RESULTS: A total of 176 patients with a median age of nine years (range 0.1 to 18 years) underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The source of stem cells were UCB, bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells in 86, 86 and four of the cases, respectively. CMV infection occurred in 29 patients (16%). At day 100 post-transplantation, the rate of CMV infection was 13% in UCB transplant recipients (11 of 86) versus 20% in those with other sources of graft (18 of 90) (P=0.19). Positive CMV serology of the recipient and leukocyte depletion were two independent variables associated with an increased risk of CMV infection. Among infected patients, six developed CMV disease (20.7%). The rate of CMV disease one year after infection was 49% in patients who received UCB (five of 11) and 6% in others (one of 18). This difference was significant by univariate (P=0.01) but not by multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSION: In the setting of the current study, with a moderate CMV infection rate (16.5%), UCB transplantation did not appear to increase the risk of CMV infection and disease.