Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology

Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology / 2013 / Article

Original Article | Open Access

Volume 24 |Article ID 547848 |

Warren J McIsaac, Rahim Moineddin, Christopher Meaney, Tony Mazzulli, "Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Women with Acute Cystitis in Canada", Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, vol. 24, Article ID 547848, 7 pages, 2013.

Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Women with Acute Cystitis in Canada


BACKGROUND: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been a traditional first-line antibiotic treatment for acute cystitis; however, guidelines do not recommend TMP-SMX in regions where Escherichia coli resistance exceeds 20%. While resistance is increasing, there are no recent Canadian estimates from a primary care setting to guide prescribing decisions.METHODS: A total of 330 family physicians assessed 752 women with suspected acute cystitis between 2009 and 2011. Physicians documented clinical features and collected urine for cultures for 430 (57.2%) women. The proportion of resistant isolates of E coli and exact binomial 95% CIs were estimated nationally, and compared regionally and demographically. These estimates were compared with those from a 2002 national study.RESULTS: The proportion of TMP-SMX-resistant E coli was 16.0% nationally (95% CI 11.3% to 21.8%). This was not statistically higher than 2002 (10.9% [P=0.14]). TMP-SMX resistance was increased in women ≤50 years of age (21.4%) compared with older women (10.7% [P=0.037]). In women with no antibiotic exposure in the previous three months, TMP-SMX-resistant E coli remained more prevalent in younger women (21.8%) compared with older women (4.4% [P=0.003]). The proportion of ciprofloxacin-resistant E coli was 5.5% nationally (95% CI 2.7% to 9.9%), and was increased compared with 2002 (1.1% [P=0.036]). Ciprofloxacin resistance was highest in British Columbia (17.7%) compared with other regions (2.7% [P=0.003]), and was increased compared with 2002 levels in this province (0.0% [P=0.025]). Nitrofurantoin-resistant E coli levels were low (0.5% [95% CI 0.01% to 2.7%).DISCUSSION: The proportion of TMP-SMX-resistant E coli causing acute cystitis in women in Canada remains below 20% nationally, but may exceed this level in premenopausal women. Ciprofloxacin resistance has increased, notably in British Columbia. Nitrofurantoin resistance levels are low across the country. These observations indicate that TMP-SMX and nitrofurantoin remain appropriate empirical antibiotic agents for treating cystitis in primary care settings in Canada.

Copyright © 2013 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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