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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages e83-e87
Original Article

Catheter Removal versus Retention in the Management of Catheter-Associated Enterococcal Bloodstream Infections

Jonas Marschall,1 Marilyn L Piccirillo,1 Victoria J Fraser,1 Joshua A Doherty,2 David K Warren,1 and for the CDC Prevention Epicenters Program

1Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
2Medical Informatics, BJC Healthcare, St Louis, Missouri, USA

Copyright © 2013 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


BACKGROUND: Enterococci are an important cause of central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections (CA-BSI). It is unclear whether CVC removal is necessary to successfully manage enterococcal CA-BSI.

METHODS: A 12-month retrospective cohort study of adults with enterococcal CA-BSI was conducted at a tertiary care hospital; clinical, microbiological and outcome data were collected.

RESULTS: A total of 111 patients had an enterococcal CA-BSI. The median age was 58.2 years (range 21 to 94 years). There were 45 (40.5%) infections caused by Entercoccus faecalis (among which 10 [22%] were vancomycin resistant), 61 (55%) by Enterococcus faecium (57 [93%] vancomycin resistant) and five (4.5%) by other Enterococcus species. Patients were treated with linezolid (n=51 [46%]), vancomycin (n=37 [33%]), daptomycin (n=11 [10%]), ampicillin (n=2 [2%]) or quinupristin/dalfopristin (n=2 [2%]); seven (n=6%) patients did not receive adequate enterococcal treatment. Additionally, 24 (22%) patients received adjunctive gentamicin treatment. The CVC was retained in 29 (26.1%) patients. Patients with removed CVCs showed lower rates of in-hospital mortality (15 [18.3%] versus 11 [37.9]; P=0.03), but similar rates of recurrent bacteremia (nine [11.0%] versus two (7.0%); P=0.7) and a similar post-BSI length of hospital stay (median days [range]) (11.1 [1.7 to 63.1 days] versus 9.3 [1.9 to 31.8 days]; P=0.3). Catheter retention was an independent predictor of mortality (OR 3.34 [95% CI 1.21 to 9.26]).

CONCLUSIONS: To the authors’ knowledge, the present article describes the largest enterococcal CA-BSI series to date. Mortality was increased among patients who had their catheter retained. Additional prospective studies are necessary to determine the optimal management of enterococcal CA-BSI.