Value of an Aggregate Index in Describing The Impact of Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance for Escherichia coli
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance indexes (DRIs) quantify the cumulative impact of antimicrobial resistance on the likelihood that a given pathogen will be susceptible to antimicrobial therapy.OBJECTIVE: To derive a DRI for community urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli in British Columbia for the years 2007 to 2010, and to examine trends over time and across patient characteristics.METHODS: Indication-specific utilization data were obtained from BC PharmaNet for outpatient antimicrobial prescriptions linked to diagnostic information from physician payment files. Resistance data for E coli urinary isolates were obtained from BC Biomedical Laboratories (now part of LifeLabs Medical Laboratory Services). DRIs were derived by multiplying the rate of resistance to a specific antimicrobial by the proportional rate of utilization for that drug class and aggregating across drug classes. Higher index values indicate more resistance.RESULTS: Adaptive-use DRIs remained stable over time at approximately 18% (95% CI 17% to 18%) among adults ≥15 years of age and approximately 28% (95% CI 26% to 31%) among children <15 years of age. Similar results were observed when proportional drug use was restricted to the baseline year (ie, a static-use model). Trends according to age group suggest a U-shaped distribution, with the highest DRIs occurring among children <10 years of age and adults ≥65 years of age. Males had consistently higher DRIs than females for all age groups.CONCLUSIONS: The stable trend in adaptive-use DRIs over time suggests that clinicians are adapting their prescribing practices for urinary tract infections to local resistance patterns. Results according to age group reveal a higher probability of resistance to initial therapy among young children and elderly individuals.