Exogenous Endophthalmitis Caused by Enterococcus casseliflavus: A Case Report and Discussion Regarding Treatment of Intraocular Infection with Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis caused by enterococci is rare, and cases involving vancomycin-resistant enterococci are even more so. Due to the poor bioavailability of many antibiotics in the vitreous chamber, special considerations are required when choosing antibiotics to treat these infections. The authors report the first case of exogenous endophthalmitis caused by Enterococcus casseliflavus via the unique mechanism of high-velocity water stream trauma from a toy water gun.A previously healthy four-year old boy presented with endophthalmitis of the left eye after injury from a water gun. Empirical treatment for endophthalmitis was started on presentation to the ophthalmologist. After the identification of the pathogen and a review of the literature, the antibiotic regimen was changed to include intravitreal ampicillin and amikacin with systemic linezolid.Endophthalmitis caused by E casseliflavus and other vancomycin-resistant enterococci are challenging to treat. Rapid identification of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal endophthalmitis is important to guide appropriate antibiotic therapy. Systemic linezolid achieves excellent intravitreal concentrations, and should be used in combination with intravitreal and topical antibiotics.