Table 1: Publicized minimum recommended cooking temperatures in North America to reduce exposure to foodborne pathogens.

Food category Example items TemperatureRest time

Leftovers & casserolesN/A74°C (165°F)None
PoultryChicken, turkey, duck, and goose; whole or parts 74°C (165°F)None
Ground meatsTurkey, chicken74°C (165°F)None
Beef, pork, veal, and lamb71°C (160°F)None

Fresh beef, veal, and lambSteaks, roasts, and chops63°C (145°F) 3 minutes
SeafoodFin fish, shrimp, lobster, and crabs, clams, oysters, and mussels; scallops63°C (145°F) or cook until flesh is opaque and separates easily with a forkNone
Pork and hamFresh pork/raw ham 63°C (145°F)3 minutes
Precooked ham (to reheat)60°C (140°F)None

Adapted from U.S. cooking guidelines (http://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/charts/mintemp.html). In Canada, similar recommendations exist, except that whole and stuffed poultry should be cooked to at least 85°C (185°F) (see “safe internal cooking temperatures” at http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/). Rest time refers to the number of minutes needed at the recommended temperature to inhibit at least units of Salmonella, to be in compliance with the USDA performance standard for lethality (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FRPubs/95-033F/95-033F_Appendix_A.htm) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)—Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) 9 CFR section 318.17(a)() (http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/cfr_2008/janqtr/9cfr318.17.html). Health Canada recently reduced the minimum internal cooking temperature recommendation for whole poultry from 85°C to 82°C based on Salmonella research [23].