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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
Volume 2016, Article ID 5486869, 8 pages
Research Article

Simulating Immune Interference on the Effect of a Bivalent Glycoconjugate Vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae Serotypes “a” and “b”

Agent-Based Modelling Laboratory, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada M3J 1P3

Received 19 May 2015; Accepted 12 November 2015

Copyright © 2016 Angjelina Konini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. We sought to evaluate the immune responses to a bivalent Haemophilus influenzae glycoconjugate vaccine against serotypes “a” (Hia) and “b” (Hib) in the presence of the preexisting immunity to Hib. Methods. We developed a stochastic simulation model of humoral immune response to investigate the antigenic challenge of a bivalent combined glycoconjugate vaccine and a bivalent unimolecular glycoconjugate vaccine. We compared simulation outcomes in the absence of any preexisting immunity with an already primed immune response having specific memory B cells and/or anti-Hib antibodies. Results. The simulation results show that the preexisting immune responses to Hib or carrier protein (CP) may significantly impede the production of anti-Hia antibodies by a unimolecular vaccine. In contrast, the production of anti-Hia antibodies using a combined vaccine is inhibited only in the presence of CP immune responses. Conclusions. Preexisting immunity to Hib and CP may play a critical role in the development of immune responses against Hia or Hib using bivalent combined and unimolecular vaccine formulations. Our results suggest that a bivalent combined glycoconjugate vaccine with a carrier protein not previously used in Hib conjugate vaccines may be an effective formulation for generating immune responses to protect against both Hib and Hia infections.