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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1324310, 12 pages
Review Article

Evidences of the Low Implication of Mosquitoes in the Transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the Causative Agent of Buruli Ulcer

1AgroEcoHealth Platform, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), 08 P.O. Box 0932, Tri-Postal, Cotonou, Benin
2Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon
3Department of Technics and Technology, Platform of Molecular Biology, Pasteur Institute Abidjan, P.O. Box 490 Abidjan 01, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
4Faculty of Science and Techniques, University of Abomey-Calavi, P.O. Box 526, Abomey-Calavi, Benin
5Department of Bacteriology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, P.O. Box 581, Legon, Accra, Ghana

Correspondence should be addressed to Francis Zeukeng

Received 13 May 2017; Revised 8 July 2017; Accepted 17 July 2017; Published 28 August 2017

Academic Editor: Maria De Francesco

Copyright © 2017 Rousseau Djouaka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Buruli ulcer (BU) continues to be a serious public health threat in wet tropical regions and the mode of transmission of its etiological agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), remains poorly understood. In this study, mosquito species collected in endemic villages in Benin were screened for the presence of MU. In addition, the ability of mosquitoes larvae to pick up MU from their environment and remain colonized through the larval developmental stages to the adult stage was investigated. Methods. 7,218 adults and larvae mosquitoes were sampled from endemic and nonendemic villages and screened for MU DNA targets (IS2404, IS2606, and KR-B) using qPCR. Results. MU was not detected in any of the field collected samples. Additional studies of artificially infected larvae of Anopheles kisumu with MU strains revealed that mosquitoes larvae are able to ingest and host MU during L1, L2, L3, and L4 developmental stages. However, we noticed an absence of these bacteria at both pupae and adult stages, certainly revealing the low ability of infected or colonized mosquitoes to vertically transmit MU to their offspring. Conclusion. The overall findings highlight the low implication of mosquitoes as biological vectors in the transmission cycle of MU from the risk environments to humans.