Figure 2: The species-specific local reproduction numbers of avian influenza estimated from prevalence data. (a) High-latitude area, (b) mid-latitude area, and (c) Oceania. The dots represent median and whiskers the 95% credible intervals. MD, MO, and DO refer to the pairs of species, {Mallard, Ducks}, {Mallard, Others}, and {Ducks, Others}, respectively. Gray dotted line denotes the threshold of 1.