Table 1: The demographic characteristics of the patient with H. pylori strain ().

CharacteristicsN (%)

Age, mean ± SD (years)58.2 ± 10.3
 Age >65 years, N (%)13 (41.9%)
Men, N (%)16 (51.6%)
Smoking, N (%)6 (19.3%)
Drinking, N (%)12 (38.7%)
Comorbidity
 Diabetes mellitus type 22 (6.4%)
 Hypertension8 (25.8%)
 Liver cirrhosis1 (3.2%)
 Cerebrovascular disorders1 (3.2%)
 Thyroid cancer1 (3.2%)
 Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis1 (3.2%)
 Pulmonary tuberculosis1 (3.2%)
Reasons for Helicobacter spp. cultures§
 First-line or second-line empirical treatment failure9 (29.0%)
 Patients’ reported antibiotic uses history in 3 years15 (48.4%)
 Other clinically suspected medical condition of drug resistance13 (41.9%)
Reason for eradication for H. pylori
 Peptic ulcer disease15 (48.4%)
 Early gastric cancer2 (6.5%)
 MALToma4 (12.9%)
 Atrophic gastritis10 (32.3%)

Other clinically suspected medical conditions of drug resistance; patients with old age more than 65 years who have had more chance to exposure into several antibiotics or patients with severe comorbid conditions such as congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, renal failure, autoimmune disorders, pulmonary disease, and so on. §Total sum of population is not 100% since duplication cases. NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; HTN, hypertension; PUD, peptic ulcer disease; EGC, early gastric cancer; MALToma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.