Hybrid (2D/3D) Dosimetry of Radiolabeled Gold Nanoparticles for Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Breast CancerRead the full article
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging is an exciting journal in the area of contrast agents and molecular imaging, covering all areas of imaging technologies with a special emphasis on MRI and PET.
Chief Editor, Professor Zimmer, focuses on the development and use of PET radiotracers for new applications of PET/MRI imaging in neuroscience and pharmacology.
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Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Contrast Agents for Assessment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review
Background and Aims. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has taken an important role in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In the wake of current advances in nanotechnology, the drug delivery industry has seen a surge of nanoparticles advertising high specificity in target imaging. Given the rapid development of the field, this review has assembled related articles to explore whether molecular contrast agents can improve the diagnostic capability on gastrointestinal imaging, especially for IBD. Methods. Relevant articles published between 1998 and 2018 from a literature search of PubMed and EMBASE were reviewed. Data extraction was performed on the studies’ characteristics, experimental animals, modelling methods, nanoparticles type, magnetic resonance methods, and means of quantitative analysis. Results. A total of 8 studies were identified wherein the subjects were animals, and all studies employed MR equipment. One group utilized a perfluorocarbon solution and the other 7 groups used either magnetic nanoparticles or gadolinium- (Gd-) related nanoparticles for molecular contrast. With ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles and Gd-related nanoparticles, signal enhancements were found in the mucosa or with focal lesion of IBD-related model in T1-weighted images (T1WI), whereas superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles showed a signal decrease in the intestinal wall of the model in T1WI or T2-weighted images. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was employed to analyze bowel intensity in 3 studies. And the percentage of normalized enhancement was used in 1 study for assessing the severity of inflammation. Conclusion. Molecular MRI with contrast agents can improve the early diagnosis of IBD and quantitate the severity of inflammation in experimental studies.
Robotic Partial Nephrectomy with Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Navigation
Partial nephrectomy (PN) is a recommended type of treatment of localised renal tumors. Real-time intraoperative imaging technique, such as fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green (ICG) administration helps to improve intraoperative and postoperative outcomes in patients who underwent PN. Our work presents results of patients who underwent robotic PN with ICG navigation. A total of 37 patients underwent robotic PN with application of ICG between April 2015 and May 2019. A total amount of 5 mg of ICG was applied intravenously, and then robotic PN was performed with fluorescent imaging. ICG was used by the surgeon’s decision according to unfavourable anatomical properties of tumor or to high R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score. An exact border between perfused and nonperfused tissue was detected, and exact tumor’s branch of the renal artery was clamped. Robotic PN with ICG-fluorescence imaging navigation was performed in 37 cases with a preoperative average diameter of tumor of 31 mm. The mean surgery time was 133 minutes, and the mean estimated blood loss was 190 mL. Arterial clamping was performed in 35 cases. The mean duration of warm ischemia was 14 minutes. Application of ICG enabled specific tumor-supplying vessel clamping in 25 cases. Two complications of grade II according to the Clavien-Dindo classification occurred intraoperatively, and one complication of grade III was observed. Renal function changes showed favourable results for the cases with superselective clamping. Finally, an administration of ICG eases superselective clamping of tumor-specific branch of renal artery and helps to preserve normal renal function with acceptable oncological results.
99mTc-CXCR4-L for Imaging of the Chemokine-4 Receptor Associated with Brain Tumor Invasiveness: Biokinetics, Radiation Dosimetry, and Proof of Concept in Humans
Overexpression of the chemokine-4 receptor (CXCR4) in brain tumors is associated with high cancer cell invasiveness. Recently, we reported the preclinical evaluation of 99mTc-CXCR4-L (cyclo-D-Tyr-D-[NMe]Orn[EDDA-99mTc-6-hydrazinylnicotinyl]-Arg-NaI-Gly) as a SPECT radioligand capable of specifically detecting the CXCR4 protein. This research aimed to estimate the biokinetic behavior and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-CXCR4-L in healthy subjects, as well as to correlate the radiotracer uptake by brain tumors in patients, with the histological grade of differentiation and CXCR4 expression evaluated by immunohistochemistry. 99mTc-CXCR4-L was obtained from freeze-dried kits prepared under GMP conditions (radiochemical purities >97%). Whole-body scans from six healthy volunteers were acquired at 0.3, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h after 99mTc-CXCR4-L administration (0.37 GBq). Time-activity curves of different source organs were obtained from the image sequence to adjust the biokinetic models. The OLINDA/EXM code was employed to calculate the equivalent and effective radiation doses. Nine patients with evidence of brain tumor injury (6 primaries and 3 recurrent), determined by MRI, underwent cerebral SPECT at 3 h after administration of 99mTc-CXCR4-L (0.74 GBq). Data were expressed as a T/B (tumor uptake/background) ratio. Biopsy examinations included histological grading and anti-CXCR4 immunohistochemistry. Results showed a fast blood activity clearance (T1/2α = 0.81 min and T1/2β = 12.19 min) with renal and hepatobiliary elimination. The average equivalent doses were 6.10E − 04, 1.41E − 04, and 3.13E − 05 mSv/MBq for the intestine, liver, and kidney, respectively. The effective dose was 3.92E − 03 mSv/MBq. SPECT was positive in 7/9 patients diagnosed as grade II oligodendroglioma (two patients), grade IV glioblastoma (two patients), grade IV gliosarcoma (one patient), metastasis, and diffuse astrocytoma with T/B ratios of 1.3, 2.3, 13, 7, 19, 5.5, and 3.9, respectively, all of them with positive immunohistochemistry. A direct relationship between the grade of differentiation and the expression of CXCR4 was found. The two negative SPECT studies showed negative immunohistochemistry with a diagnosis of reactive gliosis. This “proof-of-concept” research warrants further clinical studies to establish the usefulness of 99mTc-CXCR4-L in the diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumors.
Diagnostic Performance of PET or PET/CT with Different Radiotracers in Patients with Suspicious Lung Cancer or Pleural Tumours according to Published Meta-Analyses
Purpose. Several meta-analyses have reported data about the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography or positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET or PET/CT) with different radiotracers in patients with suspicious lung cancer (LC) or pleural tumours (PT). This review article aims at providing an overview on the recent evidence-based data in this setting. Methods. A comprehensive literature search of meta-analyses published in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Library database from January 2010 through March 2020 about the diagnostic performance of PET or PET/CT with different radiotracers in patients with suspicious LC or PT was performed. This combination of keywords was used: (A) “PET” OR “positron emission tomography” AND (B) “lung” OR “pulmonary” OR “pleur∗” AND (C) meta-analysis. Only meta-analyses on PET or PET/CT in patients with suspicious LC or PT were selected. Results. We have summarized the diagnostic performance of PET or PET/CT with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and other radiotracers taking into account 17 meta-analyses. Evidence-based data demonstrated a good diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET or PET/CT for the characterization of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) or pleural lesions with overall higher sensitivity than specificity. Evidence-based data do not support the routine use of dual time point (DTP) 18F-FDG PET/CT or fluorine-18 fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of SPNs. Even if 18F-FDG PET/CT has high sensitivity and specificity as a selective screening modality for LC, its role in this setting remains unknown. Conclusions. Evidence-based data about the diagnostic performance of PET/CT with different radiotracers for suspicious LC or PT are increasing, with good diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT. More prospective multicenter studies and cost-effectiveness analyses are warranted.
Radiosynthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Preclinical Study of a 68Ga-Labeled Cyclic RGD Peptide as an Early Diagnostic Agent for Overexpressed αvβ3 Integrin Receptors in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
The αvβ3 integrin receptors have high expression on proliferating growing tumor cells of different origins including non-small-cell lung cancer. RGD-containing peptides target the extracellular domain of integrin receptors. This specific targeting makes these short sequences a suitable nominee for theranostic application. DOTA-E(cRGDfK)2 was radiolabeled with 68Ga efficiently. The in vivo and in vitro stability was examined in different buffer systems. Metabolic stability was assessed in mice urine. In vitro specific binding, cellular uptake, and internalization were determined. The tumor-targeting potential of [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-E(cRGDfK)2 in a lung cancer mouse model was studied. Besides, the very early diagnostic potential of the 68Ga-labeled RGD peptide was evaluated. The acquisition and reconstruction of the PET-CT image data were also carried out. Radiochemical and radionuclide purity for [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-E(cRGDfK)2 was >%98 and >%99, respectively. Radiotracer showed high in vivo, in vitro, and metabolic stability which was determined by ITLC. The dissociation constant (Kd) of [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-E(cRGDfK)2 was 15.28 nM. On average, more than 95% of the radioactivity was specific binding (internalized + surface-bound) to A549 cells. Biodistribution data showed that radiolabeled peptides were accumulated significantly in A549 tumor and excreted rapidly by the renal system. Tumor uptake peaks were at 1-hour postinjection for [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-E(cRGDfK)2. The tumor was clearly visualized in all images. [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-E(cRGDfK)2 can be used as a peptide-based imaging agent allowing very early detection of different cancers overexpressing αvβ3 integrin receptors and can be a potential candidate in clinical peptide-based imaging for lung cancer.
Multiplexed 129Xe HyperCEST MRI Detection of Genetically Reconstituted Bacterial Protein Nanoparticles in Human Cancer Cells
Gas vesicle nanoparticles (GVs) are gas-containing protein assemblies expressed in bacteria and archaea. Recently, GVs have gained considerable attention for biotechnological applications as genetically encodable contrast agents for MRI and ultrasonography. However, at present, the practical use of GVs is hampered by a lack of robust methodology for their induction into mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate the genetic reconstitution of protein nanoparticles with characteristic bicone structures similar to natural GVs in a human breast cancer cell line KPL-4 and genetic control of their size and shape through expression of reduced sets of humanized gas vesicle genes cloned into Tol2 transposon vectors, referencing the natural gas vesicle gene clusters of the cyanobacteria planktothrix rubescens/agardhii. We then report the utility of these nanoparticles as multiplexed, sensitive, and genetically encoded contrast agents for hyperpolarized xenon chemical exchange saturation transfer (HyperCEST) MRI.