Table 4

ApplicationsPopulation/animal modelsRadioligandMain findingsRef.

Vasculitis

Clinical(i) 15 patients with large vessel vasculitis (5 TA, 4 GCA, & 6 SLE)
(ii) 1 GCA patient followed-up after 20-week course of oral CS
11C-PK11195(i) 3/5 patients whose tracer binding was found at the level of the aorta; maximal tracer uptake coincided with minimal calcification
Tracer TBR was significantly higher in symptomatic, compared to asymptomatic patients
(ii) Tracer uptake was markedly reduced in the wall of the aortic arch after CS treatment
The reduction in radioligand binding was paralleled by a distinct improvement in symptoms and a decrease in his serum inflammatory markers
Pugliese et al. (2010) [36]

Clinical7 patients (3 symptomatic & 4 asymptomatic) with large vessel vasculitis11C-PK11195 was significantly greater in symptomatic than in asymptomatic patientsLamare et al. (2010) [110]

Atherosclerosis

PreclinicalConstrictive cuff was placed on the right carotid artery of 6 mice18F-FEDAA1106Significantly increased tracer binding in the right carotid artery compared to left (unmanipulated) carotid artery
TAC exhibited a significantly greater increase in binding at the downstream region when compared to the cuffed or upstream regions at 60 minutes after injection
Cuhlmann et al. (2014) [120]

Preclinical10 atherosclerotic mice (LDLR−/− ApoB100/100) versus 9 healthy mice18F-FEMPAThere was visually detectable tracer uptake that colocalized with the aortic arch, but not significantly different between the animal groups
Radioligand SUV was significantly higher in atherosclerotic aortas in muted mice than in healthy control mice
Hellberg et al. (2017) [121]

Clinical32 patients with carotid stenosis (9 symptomatic & 27 asymptomatic)11C-PK11195Tracer SUV and TBR were higher in carotid plaques of symptomatic than asymptomatic patients
No significant correlation between radioligand TBR and plaque calcification
ROC analysis of tracer TBR to identity patients with CVE showed sensitivity of 78%, specificity of 74%, NPV of 91%, and PPV of 50%
Gaemperli et al. (2012) [122]

CS, corticosteroids; CVE, cerebrovascular events; GCA, giant cell arteritis; HC, healthy control; NPV, negative predictive value; PPV, positive predictive value; ROC, receiver operating characteristic; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SUV, standardized uptake value; TA, Takayasu’s arteritis; TAC, time-activity curves; TBR, target-to-background ratio; , total volume of distribution.