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Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Volume 2018, Article ID 2136840, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2136840
Research Article

Spectral Photon-Counting Molecular Imaging for Quantification of Monoclonal Antibody-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles Targeted to Lymphoma and Breast Cancer: An In Vitro Study

1Department of Radiology, University of Otago, Christchurch School of Medicine, 2 Riccarton Avenue, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand
2Steroid & Immunobiochemistry Laboratory, Canterbury Health Laboratories, 524 Hagley Ave, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Otago, Christchurch School of Medicine, 2 Riccarton Avenue, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand

Correspondence should be addressed to Chiara Lowe; zn.ca.ogato.dargtsop@ewol.araihc

Received 20 July 2018; Accepted 18 November 2018; Published 18 December 2018

Guest Editor: Alessandro Bombonati

Copyright © 2018 Mahdieh Moghiseh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate an in vitro proof of principle that spectral photon-counting CT can measure gold-labelled specific antibodies targeted to specific cancer cells. A crossover study was performed with Raji lymphoma cancer cells and HER2-positive SKBR3 breast cancer cells using a MARS spectral CT scanner. Raji cells were incubated with monoclonal antibody-labelled gold, rituximab (specific antibody to Raji cells), and trastuzumab (as a control); HER2-positive SKBR3 breast cancer cells were incubated with monoclonal antibody-labelled gold, trastuzumab (specific antibody to HER2-positive cancer cells), and rituximab (as a control). The calibration vials with multiple concentrations of nonfunctionalised gold nanoparticles were used to calibrate spectral CT. Spectral imaging results showed that the Raji cells-rituximab-gold and HER2-positive cells-trastuzumab-gold had a quantifiable amount of gold, 5.97 mg and 0.78 mg, respectively. In contrast, both cell lines incubated with control antibody-labelled gold nanoparticles had less gold attached (1.22 mg and 0.15 mg, respectively). These results demonstrate the proof of principle that spectral molecular CT imaging can identify and quantify specific monoclonal antibody-labelled gold nanoparticles taken up by Raji cells and HER2-positive SKBR3 breast cancer cells. The present study reports the future potential of spectral molecular imaging in detecting tumour heterogeneity so that treatment can be tuned accordingly, leading to more effective personalised medicine.