Exposure of Macrophages to Low-Dose Gadolinium-Based Contrast Medium: Impact on Oxidative Stress and Cytokines Production
Effect of gadolinium or GBCAs on the production of TNF-α, nitrate/nitrite, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 by the RAW 264.7 cells. The levels of TNF-α (a) were measured after treatment with 2.5 μM Gd chloride or GBCAs (2.5 μM) for 4 h and those of nitrite/nitrate (b) for 4 h and 24 h IL-10 (c) for 4 h, IL-6 (d) for 24 h, IL-1β (e) for 24 h, and PGE2 (f) for 24 h were measured. when compared with control. # when compared with Gd chloride (n = 5).
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