Development and Evaluation of a Stochastic Simulation of Cartilage Bone Osteogenesis
Both long and irregular bones tend to form via endochondral ossification and are referred to as cartilage bones. Based upon the hypothesis that bone grows and forms as a semi-deterministic/semi-chaotic system, it should be possible to accurately model the osteogenesis of cartilage bones using a stochastic simulation. A thorough review of the literature has been undertaken enabling the cell types and tissues to be identified and a set of simulation rules to be established. The operation of the simulation has been evaluated longitudinally, reporting bone and blood vessel structures as the simulation develops to completion with fusion of the epiphyses; the simulation variability has been assessed by repeat runs using the same default conditions; and the effect of independently modifying key simulation parameters has been studied. This is thought to be the first report of a stochastic simulation of cartilage bone osteogenesis. The developed structures accurately follow the growth and form of irregular cartilage bones such as the vertebrae or calcaneus. The future of the simulation is now dependent primarily upon its potential utility in the field of bone metabolism and disease.