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Identification of the Key Genes Involved in the Effect of Folic Acid on Endothelial Progenitor Cell Transcriptome of Patients with Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases in children. Previous studies have suggested that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) might be engaged in the regulating of the biological processes in T1D and folic acid (FA) might be engaged in regulating EPC function. The present study has identified 716 downregulated genes and 617 upregulated genes in T1D EPC cases after treated with FA. Bioinformatics analysis has shown that these DEGs were engaged in regulating metabolic processes, cell proliferation-related processes, bone marrow development, cell adhesion, platelet degranulation, and cellular response to growth factor stimulus. Furthermore, we have conducted and identified hub PPI networks. Importantly, we have identified 6 upregulated genes (POLR2A, BDNF, CDC27, LTN1, RAB1A, and CUL2) and 8 downregulated genes (SHC1, GRIN2B, TTN, GNAL, GNB2, PTK2, TF, and TLR9) as key regulators involved in the effect of FA on endothelial progenitor cell transcriptome of patients with T1D. We think that this study could provide novel information to understand the roles of FA in regulating EPCs of T1D patients.
Assessment of the Potential Adverse Events Related to Ribavirin-Interferon Combination for Novel Coronavirus Therapy
Purpose. We aimed to analyze and evaluate the safety signals of ribavirin-interferon combination through data mining of the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), so as to provide reference for the rationale use of these agents in the management of relevant toxicities emerging in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). Methods. Reports to the FAERS from 1 January 2004 to 8 March 2020 were analyzed. The proportion of report ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and Bayesian confidence interval progressive neural network (BCPNN) method were used to detect the safety signals. Results. A total of 55 safety signals were detected from the top 250 adverse event reactions in 2200 reports, but 19 signals were not included in the drug labels. All the detected adverse event reactions were associated with 13 System Organ Classes (SOC), such as gastrointestinal, blood and lymph, hepatobiliary, endocrine, and various nervous systems. The most frequent adverse events were analyzed, and the results showed that females were more likely to suffer from anemia, vomiting, neutropenia, diarrhea, and insomnia. Conclusion. The ADE (adverse drug event) signal detection based on FAERS is helpful to clarify the potential adverse events related to ribavirin-interferon combination for novel coronavirus therapy; clinicians should pay attention to the adverse reactions of gastrointestinal and blood systems, closely monitor the fluctuations of the platelet count, and carry out necessary mental health interventions to avoid serious adverse events.
Identifying Heat Shock Protein Families from Imbalanced Data by Using Combined Features
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are ubiquitous in living organisms. HSPs are an essential component for cell growth and survival; the main function of HSPs is controlling the folding and unfolding process of proteins. According to molecular function and mass, HSPs are categorized into six different families: HSP20 (small HSPS), HSP40 (J-proteins), HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and HSP100. In this paper, improved methods for HSP prediction are proposed—the split amino acid composition (SAAC), the dipeptide composition (DC), the conjoint triad feature (CTF), and the pseudoaverage chemical shift (PseACS) were selected to predict the HSPs with a support vector machine (SVM). In order to overcome the imbalance data classification problems, the syntactic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) was used to balance the dataset. The overall accuracy was 99.72% with a balanced dataset in the jackknife test by using the optimized combination feature SAAC+DC+CTF+PseACS, which was 4.81% higher than the imbalanced dataset with the same combination feature. The Sn, Sp, Acc, and MCC of HSP families in our predictive model were higher than those in existing methods. This improved method may be helpful for protein function prediction.
Controlling the Spread of COVID-19: Optimal Control Analysis
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). It was declared on March 11, 2020, by the World Health Organization as pandemic disease. The disease has neither approved medicine nor vaccine and has made governments and scholars search for drastic measures in combating the pandemic. Regrettably, the spread of the virus and mortality due to COVID-19 has continued to increase daily. Hence, it is imperative to control the spread of the disease particularly using nonpharmacological strategies such as quarantine, isolation, and public health education. This work studied the effect of these different control strategies as time-dependent interventions using mathematical modeling and optimal control approach to ascertain their contributions in the dynamic transmission of COVID-19. The model was proven to have an invariant region and was well-posed. The basic reproduction number and effective reproduction numbers were computed with and without interventions, respectively, and were used to carry out the sensitivity analysis that identified the critical parameters contributing to the spread of COVID-19. The optimal control analysis was carried out using the Pontryagin’s maximum principle to figure out the optimal strategy necessary to curtail the disease. The findings of the optimal control analysis and numerical simulations revealed that time-dependent interventions reduced the number of exposed and infected individuals compared to time-independent interventions. These interventions were time-bound and best implemented within the first 100 days of the outbreak. Again, the combined implementation of only two of these interventions produced a good result in reducing infection in the population. While, the combined implementation of all three interventions performed better, even though zero infection was not achieved in the population. This implied that multiple interventions need to be deployed early in order to reduce the virus to the barest minimum.
A Computational Model to Investigate GABA-Activated Astrocyte Modulation of Neuronal Excitation
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is critical for proper neural network function and can activate astrocytes to induce neuronal excitability; however, the mechanism by which astrocytes transform inhibitory signaling to excitatory enhancement remains unclear. Computational modeling can be a powerful tool to provide further understanding of how GABA-activated astrocytes modulate neuronal excitation. In the present study, we implemented a biophysical neuronal network model to investigate the effects of astrocytes on excitatory pre- and postsynaptic terminals following exposure to increasing concentrations of external GABA. The model completely describes the effects of GABA on astrocytes and excitatory presynaptic terminals within the framework of glutamatergic gliotransmission according to neurophysiological findings. Utilizing this model, our results show that astrocytes can rapidly respond to incoming GABA by inducing Ca2+ oscillations and subsequent gliotransmitter glutamate release. Elevation in GABA concentrations not only naturally decreases neuronal spikes but also enhances astrocytic glutamate release, which leads to an increase in astrocyte-mediated presynaptic release and postsynaptic slow inward currents. Neuronal excitation induced by GABA-activated astrocytes partly counteracts the inhibitory effect of GABA. Overall, the model helps to increase knowledge regarding the involvement of astrocytes in neuronal regulation using simulated bath perfusion of GABA, which may be useful for exploring the effects of GABA-type antiepileptic drugs.
Circular RNA CircITGA7 Promotes Tumorigenesis of Osteosarcoma via miR-370/PIM1 Axis
Many studies have shown that there are many circular RNA (circRNA) expression abnormalities in osteosarcoma (OS), and this abnormality is related to the development of osteosarcoma. But at present, it is unclear as to what circITGA7 has in the OS and what it does. In this study, qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of circITGA7, miR-370, and PIM1 mRNA in OS tissues and cells. The CCK-8 assay was used to detect the effect of circITGA7 on cell proliferation. Later, the transwell assay was used to detect cell migration and invasion. The dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed the existence of the targeting relationship between circITGA7 and miR-370, and miR-370 and PIM1. We found that circITGA7 was upregulated in OS tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of circITGA7 weakened the cell’s ability to proliferate and metastasize. Furthermore, we observed that miR-370 was negatively regulated by circITGA7, while PIM1 was positively regulated by it. A functional assay validated that circITGA7 promoted OS progression via suppressing miR-370 and miR-370 affected OS proliferation and migration via PIM6 in OS. In summary, this study shows that circITGA7 promotes OS proliferation and metastasis via miR-370/PIM1.