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A Flexible Reduced Logarithmic-X Family of Distributions with Biomedical Analysis
Statistical distributions play a prominent role in applied sciences, particularly in biomedical sciences. The medical data sets are generally skewed to the right, and skewed distributions can be used quite effectively to model such data sets. In the present study, therefore, we propose a new family of distributions to model right skewed medical data sets. The proposed family may be named as a flexible reduced logarithmic-X family. The proposed family can be obtained via reparameterizing the exponentiated Kumaraswamy G-logarithmic family and the alpha logarithmic family of distributions. A special submodel of the proposed family called, a flexible reduced logarithmic-Weibull distribution, is discussed in detail. Some mathematical properties of the proposed family and certain related characterization results are presented. The maximum likelihood estimators of the model parameters are obtained. A brief Monte Carlo simulation study is done to evaluate the performance of these estimators. Finally, for the illustrative purposes, three applications from biomedical sciences are analyzed and the goodness of fit of the proposed distribution is compared to some well-known competitors.
Mathematical Modelling for the Role of CD4+T Cells in Tumor-Immune Interactions
Mathematical modelling has been used to study tumor-immune cell interaction. Some models were proposed to examine the effect of circulating lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and CD8+T cells, but they neglected the role of CD4+T cells. Other models were constructed to study the role of CD4+T cells but did not consider the role of other immune cells. In this study, we propose a mathematical model, in the form of a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, that predicts the interaction between tumor cells and natural killer cells, CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, and circulating lymphocytes with or without immunotherapy and/or chemotherapy. This system is stiff, and the Runge–Kutta method failed to solve it. Consequently, the “Adams predictor-corrector” method is used. The results reveal that the patient’s immune system can overcome small tumors; however, if the tumor is large, adoptive therapy with CD4+T cells can be an alternative to both CD8+T cell therapy and cytokines in some cases. Moreover, CD4+T cell therapy could replace chemotherapy depending upon tumor size. Even if a combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy is necessary, using CD4+T cell therapy can better reduce the dose of the associated chemotherapy compared to using combined CD8+T cells and cytokine therapy. Stability analysis is performed for the studied patients. It has been found that all equilibrium points are unstable, and a condition for preventing tumor recurrence after treatment has been deduced. Finally, a bifurcation analysis is performed to study the effect of varying system parameters on the stability, and bifurcation points are specified. New equilibrium points are created or demolished at some bifurcation points, and stability is changed at some others. Hence, for systems turning to be stable, tumors can be eradicated without the possibility of recurrence. The proposed mathematical model provides a valuable tool for designing patients’ treatment intervention strategies.
Mathematical Analysis of the Effects of Controls on the Transmission Dynamics of Anthrax in Both Animal and Human Populations
A nonlinear differential equation model is proposed to study the impact of vaccination on the transmission dynamics of anthrax in both livestock and human populations. The model is shown to exhibit only two equilibria, namely, the disease-free and the endemic equilibrium points, which are proven to be locally stable if the basic reproduction number () is less than unity and greater than unity, respectively. Local sensitivity analysis shows that the infection rate, pathogen-shedding rate, and rate of vaccination of livestock are parameters with the most positive impact on disease spread, whereas the rate of disinfection followed by the rate of vaccination are the parameters with the most negative impact on disease spread. Numerical simulation shows that implementing all control measures (i.e., vaccination, education, disinfection, and treatment) is a most effective strategy to curb disease spread.
3D Simulation Analysis of Central Shunt in Patient-Specific Hemodynamics: Effects of Varying Degree of Pulmonary Artery Stenosis and Shunt Diameters
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different shunt diameters and pulmonary artery (PA) stenosis grades on the hemodynamics of central shunts to determine an optimal surgical plan and improve the long-term outcomes of the operation. A 3D anatomical model was reconstructed based on the patient’s clinical CT data. 3D computational fluid dynamics models were built with varying degrees of stenosis (the stenosis ratio α was represented by the ratio of blood flow through the main pulmonary artery to cardiac output, ranging from 0 to 30%; the smaller the value of α, the more severe the pulmonary artery stenosis) and varying shunt diameters (3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, and 5 mm). Our results show that the asymmetry of pulmonary artery flow increased with increasing shunt diameter and α, which will be more conducive to the development of the left pulmonary artery. Additionally, the pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio (QP/QS) increases with the shunt diameter and α, and all the values exceed 1. When the shunt diameter is 3 mm and α = 0%, QP/QS reaches the minimum value of 1.01, and the oxygen delivery reaches the maximum value of 205.19 ml/min. However, increasing shunt diameter and α is beneficial to reduced power loss and smoother PA flow. In short, for patients with severe PA stenosis (α is small), a larger-diameter shunt may be preferred. Conversely, when the degree of PA stenosis is moderate, a smaller shunt diameter can be considered.
Logarithmic Fuzzy Entropy Function for Similarity Measurement in Multimodal Medical Images Registration
Multimodal medical images are useful for observing tissue structure clearly in clinical practice. To integrate multimodal information, multimodal registration is significant. The entropy-based registration applies a structure descriptor set to replace the original multimodal image and compute similarity to express the correlation of images. The accuracy and converging rate of the registration depend on this set. We propose a new method, logarithmic fuzzy entropy function, to compute the descriptor set. It is obvious that the proposed method can increase the upper bound value from log(r) to log(r) + ∆(r) so that a more representative structural descriptor set is formed. The experiment results show that our method has faster converging rate and wider quantified range in multimodal medical images registration.
Multiple Linear Regression Model of Meningococcal Disease in Ukraine: 1992–2015
Estimating the rates of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) from epidemiologic data remains critical for making public health decisions. In Ukraine, such estimations have not been performed. We used epidemiological data to develop a national database. These data were used to estimate the population susceptible to IMD and identify the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of N. meningitidis using simple epidemiological models of meningococcal disease that may be used by the national policy makers. The goal was to create simple, easily understood analysis of patterns of the infection within Ukraine that would capture the major features of the infection dynamics. Studies used nationally reported data during 1992–2015. A logic model identified the prevalence of carriage and the proportion of the population susceptible to IMD as key drivers of IMD incidence. Multiple linear regression models for all ages (total population) and for children ≤14 years old were fit to national-level data. Linear models with the incidence of IMD as an outcome were highly associated with carriage and estimated susceptible population in both total population and children (R2 = 0.994 and R2 = 0.978, respectively). The susceptibility rate to IMD in the study total population averaged 0.0034 ± 0.0009% annually. At the national level, IMD can be characterized by the simple interaction between the prevalence of asymptomatic carriage and the proportion of the susceptible population. IMD association with prevalence rates of carriage and the proportion of susceptible population is sufficiently strong for national-level planning of intervention strategies for IMD.