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Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 201-222
Original Article

Modelling the Effects of Condom Use and Antiretroviral Therapy in Controlling HIV/AIDS among Heterosexuals, Homosexuals and Bisexuals

1Department of Applied Mathematics, National University of Science and Technology, Box AC 939 Ascot, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
2Department of Public Health, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan

Received 8 March 2009; Accepted 1 September 2009

Copyright © 2010 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A deterministic compartmental sex-structured HIV/AIDS model for assessing the effects of homosexuals and bisexuals in heterosexual settings in which homosexuality and bisexuality issues have remained taboo is presented. We extend the model to focus on the effects of condom use as a single strategy approach in HIV prevention in the absence of any other intervention strategies. Initially, we model the use of male condoms, followed by incorporating the use of both the female and male condoms. The model includes two primary factors in condom use to control HIV which are condom efficacy and compliance. Reproductive numbers for these models are computed and compared to assess the effectiveness of male and female condom use in a community. We also extend the basic model to consider the effects of antiretroviral therapy as a single strategy. The results from the study show that condoms can reduce the number of secondary infectives and thus can slow the development of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Further, we note from the study that treatment of AIDS patients may enlarge the epidemic when the treatment drugs are not 100% effective and when treated AIDS patients indulge in risky sexual behaviour. Thus, the treatment with amelioration of AIDS patients should be accompanied with intense public health educational programs, which are capable of changing the attitude of treated AIDS patients towards safe sex. It is also shown from the study that the use of condoms in settings with the treatment may help in reducing the number of secondary infections thus slowing the epidemic.