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Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 473572, 14 pages
Research Article

Assessing the Effects of Estrogen on the Dynamics of Breast Cancer

Modelling Biomedical Systems Research Group, Department of Applied Mathematics, National University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box AC 939, Ascot, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

Received 8 August 2012; Revised 2 November 2012; Accepted 12 November 2012

Academic Editor: Scott Penfold

Copyright © 2012 Chipo Mufudza et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Worldwide, breast cancer has become the second most common cancer in women. The disease has currently been named the most deadly cancer in women but little is known on what causes the disease. We present the effects of estrogen as a risk factor on the dynamics of breast cancer. We develop a deterministic mathematical model showing general dynamics of breast cancer with immune response. This is a four-population model that includes tumor cells, host cells, immune cells, and estrogen. The effects of estrogen are then incorporated in the model. The results show that the presence of extra estrogen increases the risk of developing breast cancer.