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Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 276478, 10 pages
Research Article

-Norm Regularization in Volumetric Imaging of Cardiac Current Sources

Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA

Received 13 September 2013; Revised 23 October 2013; Accepted 23 October 2013

Academic Editor: Heye Zhang

Copyright © 2013 Azar Rahimi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Advances in computer vision have substantially improved our ability to analyze the structure and mechanics of the heart. In comparison, our ability to observe and analyze cardiac electrical activities is much limited. The progress to computationally reconstruct cardiac current sources from noninvasive voltage data sensed on the body surface has been hindered by the ill-posedness and the lack of a unique solution of the reconstruction problem. Common L2- and L1-norm regularizations tend to produce a solution that is either too diffused or too scattered to reflect the complex spatial structure of current source distribution in the heart. In this work, we propose a general regularization with Lp-norm ( ) constraint to bridge the gap and balance between an overly smeared and overly focal solution in cardiac source reconstruction. In a set of phantom experiments, we demonstrate the superiority of the proposed Lp-norm method over its L1 and L2 counterparts in imaging cardiac current sources with increasing extents. Through computer-simulated and real-data experiments, we further demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method in imaging the complex structure of excitation wavefront, as well as current sources distributed along the postinfarction scar border. This ability to preserve the spatial structure of source distribution is important for revealing the potential disruption to the normal heart excitation.