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Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 314280, 9 pages
Research Article

Application of Computational Lower Extremity Model to Investigate Different Muscle Activities and Joint Force Patterns in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients during Walking

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Inje University, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Ilsan 441-706, Republic of Korea
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701, Republic of Korea
3Department of Applied Mathematics, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701, Republic of Korea

Received 23 July 2013; Revised 13 September 2013; Accepted 16 September 2013

Academic Editor: Zhonghua Sun

Copyright © 2013 Kyung Wook Nha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Many experimental and computational studies have reported that osteoarthritis in the knee joint affects knee biomechanics, including joint kinematics, joint contact forces, and muscle activities, due to functional restriction and disability. In this study, differences in muscle activities and joint force patterns between knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and normal subjects during walking were investigated using the inverse dynamic analysis with a lower extremity musculoskeletal model. Extensor/flexor muscle activations and torque ratios and the joint contact forces were compared between the OA and normal groups. The OA patients had higher extensor muscle forces and lateral component of the knee joint force than normal subjects as well as force and torque ratios of extensor and flexor muscles, while the other parameters had little differences. The results explained that OA patients increased the level of antagonistic cocontraction and the adduction moment on the knee joint. The presented findings and technologies provide insight into biomechanical changes in OA patients and can also be used to evaluate the postoperative functional outcomes of the OA treatments.