Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 516465, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/516465
Research Article

A QR Code Based Zero-Watermarking Scheme for Authentication of Medical Images in Teleradiology Cloud

1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Engineering College, Kovilpatti 628503, India
2Department of Information Technology, Sethu Institute of Technology, Pulloor, Kariapatti 626115, India

Received 15 March 2013; Accepted 4 June 2013

Academic Editor: Liang Li

Copyright © 2013 V. Seenivasagam and R. Velumani. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Liu and J. Zhang, “Case study of security in teleradiology reporting system for management of data from multiple enterprises,” International Journal of Business and Social Science, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 9–15, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  2. J. C. Sriram, M. Shin, T. Choudhury, and D. Kotz, “Activity-aware ECG-based patient authentication for remote health monitoring,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces and the Workshop on Machine Learning for Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI-MLMI '09), pp. 297–304, November 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Coatrieux, H. Maître, B. Sankur, Y. Rolland, and R. Collorec, “Relevance of watermarking in medical imaging,” in Proceedings of the IEEE EMBS International Conference on Information Technology Applications in Biomedicine, pp. 250–255, November 2000. View at Scopus
  4. O. M. Al-Qershi and B. E. Khoo, “Authentication and data hiding using a hybrid ROI-based watermarking scheme for DICOM images,” Journal of Digital Imaging, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 114–125, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Rey and J.-L. Dugelay, “A survey of watermarking algorithms for image authentication,” EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, vol. 2002, no. 6, pp. 613–621, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Z. Shu, S. Wang, C. Deng, G. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Watermarking algorithm based on contourlet transform and human visual model,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS '08), pp. 348–352, July 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Song, S. Yu, X. Yang, L. Song, and C. Wang, “Contourlet-based image adaptive watermarking,” Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 162–178, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. Salahi, M. S. Moin, and A. Salahi, “A new visually imperceptible and robust image watermarking scheme in Contourlet domain,” in 2008 4th International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multiedia Signal Processing (IIH-MSP '08), pp. 457–460, August 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Sverdlov, S. Dexter, and A. M. Eskicioglu, “Robust SVD DCT based watermarking for copyright protection,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 724–735, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. E. Ganic and A. M. Eskicioglu, “Robust DWT-SVD domain image watermarking: embedding data in all frequencies,” in Proceedings of the International Multimedia Conference and Workshop on Multimedia and Security, vol. 20, pp. 166–174, September 2004. View at Scopus
  11. C. Venkata Narasimhulu and K. Satya Prasad, “A new SVD based hybrid color image watermarking for copyright protection using contourlet transform,” International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 18–27, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  12. Q. Wen, T.-F. Sun, and S.-X. Wang, “Concept and application of zero-watermark,” Acta Electronica Sinica, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 214–216, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. Dong, H. Zhang, J. Li, and Y. W. Chen, “Robust zero-watermarking for medical image based on DCT,” in Proceedings of IEEE 6th International Conference on Computer Sciences and Convergence Information Technology, pp. 900–904, 2011.
  14. C. Dong, Y. W. Chen, J. Li, and Y. Bai, “Zero watermarking for medical images based on DFT and LFSR,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Automation Engineering, vol. 1, pp. 22–26, 2012.
  15. Denso-Wave, June 2012, http://www.denso-wave.com/qrcode/index-e.html.
  16. K.-C. Liao and W.-H. Lee, “A novel user authentication scheme based on QR-code,” Journal of Networks, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 937–941, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. A. Navas and M. Sasikumar, “Survey of medical image watermarking algorithms,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Sciences of Electronics, Technologies of Information and Telecommunications, pp. 25–29, 2007.
  18. Z.-R. Li, E.-C. Chang, K.-H. Huang, and F. Lai, “A secure electronic medical record sharing mechanism in the cloud computing platform,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics (ISCE '11), pp. 98–103, June 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. G. Shini, T. Thomas, and K. Chithraranjan, “Cloud based medical image exchange-security challenges,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 38, pp. 3454–3461, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. B. Cramer, G. Butler, J. Chalaoui, K. Silverthorn, L. Lepanto, and D. Koff, “CAR standards for Teleradiology,” June 2012, http://www.car.ca/uploads/standards guidelines/Standard_Teleradiology_EN.pdf.
  21. H. Nyeem, W. Boles, and C. Boyd, “A review of medical image watermarking requirements for teleradiology,” Journal of Digital Imaging, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 1–18, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  22. M. Benjamin, Y. Aradi, and R. Shreiber, “From shared data to sharing workflow: merging PACS and teleradiology,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 3–9, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. Sarrail and S. K. Stromberg, “How the HITECH Act May Affect Your Healthcare Facility,” December 2012, http://www.campussafetymagazine.com/Channel/Hospital-Security/articles/2010/05/How-the-HITECH-Act-May-Affect-Your-Healthcare-Facility.aspx.
  24. “Positive Patient Identification Wristband Solutions,” December 2012, http://www.satoeurope.com/uk/industry-solutions/healthcare/patient-wristbands.aspx.
  25. R. I. García-Betances and M. K. Huerta, “A review of automatic patient identification options for public health care centers with restricted budgets,” Online Journal of Public Health Informatics, vol. 4, no. 1, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. K. Davis, “Emergency Workers Scan QR Codes to Quickly Access Health Information,” December 2012, http://www.pcworld.com/article/256550/emergency_workers_scan_qr_codes_to_quickly_access_health_information.html.
  27. J. Kim, N. Kim, D. Lee, S. Park, and S. Lee, “Watermarking two dimensional data object identifier for authenticated distribution of digital multimedia contents,” Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 559–576, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. C. Chang, K. F. Hwang, and M. S. Hwang, “A block based digital watermarks for copy protection of images,” in Proceedings of the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications and Fourth Optoelectronics and Communications Conference, vol. 2, pp. 977–980, 1999.
  29. D. Charalampidis, “Improved robust VQ-based watermarking,” Electronics Letters, vol. 41, no. 23, pp. 21–22, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Sang, X. Liao, and M. S. Alam, “Neural-network-based zero-watermark scheme for digital images,” Optical Engineering, vol. 45, no. 9, Article ID 097006, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C.-S. Hsu and Y.-C. Hou, “Copyright protection scheme for digital images using visual cryptography and sampling methods,” Optical Engineering, vol. 44, no. 7, Article ID 077003, pp. 1–10, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M.-S. Wang and W.-C. Chen, “A hybrid DWT-SVD copyright protection scheme based on k-means clustering and visual cryptography,” Computer Standards and Interfaces, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 757–762, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Rawat and B. Raman, “A blind watermarking algorithm based on fractional Fourier transform and visual cryptography,” Signal Processing, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 1480–1491, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. Y. Fan, B. C. Chieu, and H. C. Chao, “Robust copyright-protection scheme based on visual secret sharing and Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem code techniques,” Journal of Electronic Imaging, vol. 21, no. 4, Article ID 043018, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. M. N. Do and M. Vetterli, “The contourlet transform: an efficient directional multiresolution image representation,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 2091–2106, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. J. Zeng and A. M. Zhou, “Image zero-watermarking algorithm based on Contourlet transform and singular value decomposition,” Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 2033–2035, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. “HL7 PID (Patient Identification) Segment,” September 2012, http://www.corepointhealth.com/resource-center/hl7-resources/hl7-pid-segment.
  38. Zxing, September 2012, http://code.google.com/p/zxing/.
  39. M. K. Hu, “Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants,” IRE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 179–187, 1962. View at Google Scholar
  40. M. Alghoniemy and A. H. Tewfik, “Image watermarking by moment invariants,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '00), vol. 2, pp. 73–76, September 2000. View at Scopus
  41. M. Alghoniemy and A. H. Tewfik, “Geometric invariance in image watermarking,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 145–153, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, and S. L. Eddins, Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB, Tata McGraw Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2010.
  43. Dr. Peterson, “Triangular Number,” December 2012, http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/56036.html.
  44. X. Wu and Z.-H. Guan, “A novel digital watermark algorithm based on chaotic maps,” Physics Letters A, vol. 365, no. 5-6, pp. 403–406, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Pereira, S. Voloshynovskiy, M. Madueno, S. Marchand-Maillet, and T. Pun, “Second generation benchmarking and application oriented evaluation,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Information Hiding, pp. 340–353, 2001.