Theoretical Hill-Type Muscle and Stability: Numerical Model and Application
(a) Theoretical construct of the CE . The CE consists of three elements: active element AE, parallel damping element PDE, and serial element SE. is the origin of the CE, the length of the AE/PDE, and the length of the whole CE. By choosing in theory, we can turn the SE off in order to represent a contractile element without any compliance. (b) Hardware design. AE and PDE were realised with an electric motor, SE with a mechanical spring. A second electric motor was used to exert a defined external force on the CE. The electromagnet held the muscle at constant length until release at time .
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