Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 5164029, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5164029
Research Article

A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model

1Federal Scientific Center For Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies, 82 Monastyrskaya Street, Perm 614000, Russia
2Department of Mathematical Simulation of Systems and Processes, Perm National Research Polytechnic University, 29 Komsomolsky Avenue, Perm 614000, Russia

Received 12 February 2016; Revised 25 April 2016; Accepted 19 May 2016

Academic Editor: Thierry Busso

Copyright © 2016 P. V. Trusov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Kroes, D. Müller, J. Lambe et al., “Assessment of intake from the diet,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 40, no. 2-3, pp. 327–385, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. N. Zheng, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, D. Zheng, Z. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Population health risk due to dietary intake of heavy metals in the industrial area of Huludao city, China,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 387, no. 1–3, pp. 96–104, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Singh, R. K. Sharma, M. Agrawal, and F. M. Marshall, “Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area of India,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 611–619, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. A. Bazzano, J. He, L. G. Ogden et al., “Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up study,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 93–99, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. Oh, F. B. Hu, J. E. Manson, M. J. Stampfer, and W. C. Willett, “Dietary fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women: 20 years of follow-up of the nurses' health study,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 161, no. 7, pp. 672–679, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R.-J. Yang, E. K. Wang, Y.-S. Hsieh, and M.-Y. Chen, “Irregular breakfast eating and health status among adolescents in Taiwan,” BMC Public Health, vol. 6, article 295, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. V. Trusov, N. V. Zaitseva, D. A. Kiryanov et al., “A mathematical model for evolution of human functional disorders influenced by environment factors,” Mathematical Biology and Bioinformatics, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 589–610, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. V. Zaitseva, P. V. Trusov, P. Z. Shur, D. A. Kiryanov, V. M. Chigvintsev, and M. Y. Tsinker, “Methodological approaches to risk assessment of mixed environmental factors on public health based on evolutionary models,” Risk Analysis to Health, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3–11, 2013 (Russian). View at Google Scholar
  9. P. V. Trusov, N. V. Zaitseva, and M. Yu. Tsinker, “Modeling of human breath: conceptual and mathematical statements,” Mathematical Biology and Bioinformatics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 64–80, 2016 (Russian). View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. N. V. Zaitseva, D. A. Kiryanov, D. V. Lanin, and V. M. Chigvintsev, “A mathematical model of the immune and neuroendocrine systems mutual regulation under the technogenic chemical factors impact,” Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 492489, 12 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Feinle, P. Kunz, P. Boesiger, M. Fried, and W. Schwizer, “Scintigraphic validation of a magnetic resonance imaging method to study gastric emptying of a solid meal in humans,” Gut, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 106–111, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Marciani, P. A. Gowland, R. C. Spiller et al., “Gastric response to increased meal viscosity assessed by echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging in humans,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 122–127, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. L. Jones, D. O'Donovan, M. Horowitz, A. Russo, Y. Lei, and T. Hausken, “Effects of posture on gastric emptying, transpyloric flow, and hunger after a glucose drink in healthy humans,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1331–1338, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. P. Simonian, A. H. Maurer, L. C. Knight et al., “Simultaneous assessment of gastric accommodation and emptying: studies with liquid and solid meals,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 1155–1160, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Liao, H. Gregersen, T. Hausken, O. H. Gilja, M. Mundt, and G. Kassab, “Analysis of surface geometry of the human stomach using real-time 3-D ultrasonography in vivo,” Neurogastroenterology & Motility, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 315–324, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. B. Frøkjær, S. D. Andersen, A. M. Drewes, and H. Gregersen, “Ultrasound-determined geometric and biomechanical properties of the human duodenum,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 1662–1669, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. D. Z. Chen and R. W. McCallum, “Clinical applications of electrogastrography,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 1324–1336, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. W. M. Janssen and R. G. Lentle, “Spatiotemporal mapping techniques for quantifying gut motility,” in New Advances in Gastrointestinal Motility Research, vol. 10 of Lecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics, pp. 219–241, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. P. Du, G. O'Grady, J. Gao, S. Sathar, and L. K. Cheng, “Toward the virtual stomach: progress in multiscale modeling of gastric electrophysiology and motility,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 481–493, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. U. de Schepper, F. Cremonini, D. Chitkara, and M. Camilleri, “Assessment of gastric accommodation: overview and evaluation of current methods,” Neurogastroenterology & Motility, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 275–285, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. Emde, A. Garner, and A. Blum, “Technical aspects of intraluminal pH-metry in man: current status and recommendations,” Gut, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1177–1188, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. G. Oomen, C. J. M. Rompelberg, M. A. Bruil, C. J. G. Dobbe, D. P. K. H. Pereboom, and A. J. A. M. Sips, “Development of an in vitro digestion model for estimating the bioaccessibility of soil contaminants,” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 281–287, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. Hedrén, V. Diaz, and U. Svanberg, “Estimation of carotenoid accessibility from carrots determined by an in vitro digestion method,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 425–430, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J.-M. Cardot, E. Beyssac, and M. Alric, “In vitro-in vivo correlation: importance of dissolution in IVIVC,” Dissolution Technologies, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 15–19, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. P. W. M. Janssen, R. G. Lentle, P. Asvarujanon, P. Chambers, K. J. Stafford, and Y. Hemar, “Characterization of flow and mixing regimes within the ileum of the brushtail possum using residence time distribution analysis with simultaneous spatio-temporal mapping,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 582, no. 3, pp. 1239–1248, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. de Loubens, R. G. Lentle, C. Hulls, P. W. M. Janssen, R. J. Love, and J. P. Chambers, “Characterisation of mixing in the proximal duodenum of the rat during longitudinal contractions and comparison with a fluid mechanical model based on spatiotemporal motility data,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 8, Article ID e105239, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. F. Barbé, S. Le Feunteun, D. Rémond et al., “Tracking the in vivo release of bioactive peptides in the gut during digestion: mass spectrometry peptidomic characterization of effluents collected in the gut of dairy matrix fed mini-pigs,” Food Research International, vol. 63, pp. 147–156, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. W. Lucas, J. F. Prinz, K. R. Agrawal, and I. C. Bruce, “Food physics and oral physiology,” Food Quality and Preference, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 203–213, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. van den Braber, H. W. van der Glas, A. van der Bilt, and F. Bosman, “The influence of orthodontics on selection and breakage underlying food coominution in pre-orthognathic surgery patients,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 592–597, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Woda, A. Mishellany, and M.-A. Peyron, “The regulation of masticatory function and food bolus formation,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 840–849, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. G. Brasseur, M. A. Nicosia, A. Pal, and L. S. Miller, “Function of longitudinal vs circular muscle fibers in esophageal peristalsis, deduced with mathematical modeling,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1335–1346, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. Yassi, L. K. Cheng, V. Rajagopal, M. P. Nash, J. A. Windsor, and A. J. Pullan, “Modeling of the mechanical function of the human gastroesophageal junction using an anatomically realistic three-dimensional model,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 1604–1609, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. Toklu, “A new mathematical model of peristaltic flow on esophageal bolus transport,” Scientific Research and Essays, vol. 6, no. 31, pp. 6606–6614, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. I. M. Joseph and D. Kirschner, “A model for the study of Helicobacter pylori interaction with human gastric acid secretion,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 228, no. 1, pp. 55–80, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Schulze, “Imaging and modelling of digestion in the stomach and the duodenum,” Neurogastroenterology & Motility, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 172–183, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. Kong and R. P. Singh, “Disintegration of solid foods in human stomach,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. R67–R80, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. J. Ferrua and R. P. Singh, “Computational modelling of gastric digestion: current challenges and future directions,” Current Opinion in Food Science, vol. 4, pp. 116–123, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. Y. Wang, J. G. Brasseur, G. G. Banco, A. G. Webb, A. C. Ailiani, and T. Neuberger, “A multiscale lattice Boltzmann model of macro- to micro-scale transport, with applications to gut function,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol. 368, no. 1921, pp. 2863–2880, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  39. D. N. Riahi and R. Roy, “Mathematical modeling of peristaltic flow of chyme in small intestine,” Applications and Applied Mathematics. An International Journal, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 428–444, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  40. A. Pal, K. Indireshkumar, W. Schwizer, B. Abrahamsson, M. Fried, and J. G. Brasseur, “Gastric flow and mixing studied using computer simulation,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 271, no. 1557, pp. 2587–2594, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Pal, J. G. Brasseur, and B. Abrahamsson, “A stomach road or “Magenstrasse” for gastric emptying,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1202–1210, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. J. Ferrua and R. P. Singh, “Modeling the fluid dynamics in a human stomach to gain insight of food digestion,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 75, no. 7, pp. R151–R162, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. J. Ferrua, Z. Xue, and R. P. Singh, “On the kinematics and efficiency of advective mixing during gastric digestion-a numerical analysis,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 47, no. 15, pp. 3664–3673, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. Z. Xue, M. J. Ferrua, and R. P. Singh, “Computational fluid dynamics modeling of granular flow in human stomach,” Alimentos Hoy, vol. 21, no. 27, pp. 3–14, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  45. Y. Imai, I. Kobayashi, S. Ishida, T. Ishikawa, M. Buist, and T. Yamaguchi, “Antral recirculation in the stomach during gastric mixing,” American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, vol. 304, no. 5, pp. G536–G542, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Dillard, S. Krishnan, and H. S. Udaykumar, “Mechanics of flow and mixing at antroduodenal junction,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1365–1371, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. Kozu, I. Kobayashi, M. Nakajima, K. Uemura, S. Sato, and S. Ichikawa, “Analysis of flow phenomena in gastric contents induced by human gastric peristalsis using CFD,” Food Biophysics, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 330–336, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. Hao, B. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Density-dependent gastroretentive microparticles motion in human gastric emptying studied using computer simulation,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 70, pp. 72–81, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. C. D. E. Loubens, R. G. Lentle, R. J. Love, C. Hulls, and P. W. M. Janssen, “Fluid mechanical consequences of pendular activity, segmentation and pyloric outflow in the proximal duodenum of the rat and the guinea pig,” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, vol. 10, no. 83, Article ID 20130027, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L. A. Fullard, W. J. Lammers, and M. J. Ferrua, “Advective mixing due to longitudinal and segmental contractions in the ileum of the rabbit,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 160, pp. 1–10, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. M. Taghipoor, P. Lescoat, J. R. Licois, C. Georgelin, and G. Barles, “Mathematical modeling of transport and degradation of feedstuffs in the small intestine,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 294, pp. 114–121, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. B. Hari, S. Bakalis, and P. Fryer, “Computational modeling and simulation of the human duodenum,” in Proceedings of the Excerpt from the Proceedings of the COMSOL Conference in Milan, Milan, Italy, 2012.
  53. Y. F. Lim, C. de Loubens, R. J. Love, R. G. Lentle, and P. W. M. Janssen, “Flow and mixing by small intestine villi,” Food and Function, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1787–1795, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. W. Leggett, “Research advances: an age-specific kinetic model of lead metabolism in humans,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 101, no. 7, pp. 598–616, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. L. Penry and P. A. Jumars, “Modeling animal guts as chemical reactors,” The American Naturalist, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 69–96, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. P. V. Trusov, N. V. Zaitseva, and M. R. Kamaltdinov, “Simulation of digestion processes in consideration of functional disorders in a human organism: conceptual and mathematical formulations, model structure,” Russian Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 60–74, 2013 (Russian). View at Google Scholar
  57. P. V. Trusov, N. V. Zaitseva, and M. R. Kamaltdinov, “Flow in antroduodenal part of digestive tract: mathematical model and some results,” Mathematical Biology and Bioinformatics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 34–53, 2015 (Russian). View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. V. M. Pokrovskiy, G. F. Korotko, and Yu. V. Natochin, Human Physiology. The Textbook, Medicine, Moscow, Russia, 1997.
  59. N. Karmakar and G. Jayaraman, “Linear diffusion of lead in the intestinal wall: a theoretical study,” IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied in Medicine & Biology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 33–43, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. A. Ravdel and A. M. Ponomareva, Quick Reference of Physical and Chemical Values. Edition 10, Revised And Enlarged, Ivan Fedorov, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 2003.
  61. A. J. Cornish-Bowden, P. Greenwell, and J. R. Knowles, “The rate-determining step in pepsin-catalysed reactions, and evidence against an acyl-enzyme intermediate,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 369–375, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. J. Cornish-Bowden and J. R. Knowles, “The pH-dependence of pepsin-catalysed reactions,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 353–362, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. W. M. Sun, L. A. Houghton, N. W. Read, D. G. Grundy, and A. G. Johnson, “Effect of meal temperature on gastric emptying of liquids in man,” Gut, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 302–305, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. F. Kong and R. P. Singh, “Solid loss of carrots during simulated gastric digestion,” Food Biophysics, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 84–93, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. X. Shi, W. Bartoli, M. Horn, and R. Murray, “Gastric emptying of cold beverages in humans: effect of transportable carbohydrates,” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 394–403, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. D. N. Bateman, “Effects of meal temperature and volume on the emptying of liquid from the human stomach,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 331, pp. 461–467, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. E. Troncon and N. Iazigi, “Effect of test meal temperature on the gastric emptying of liquids,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 57–60, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. K. E. McArthur and M. Feldman, “Gastric acid secretion, gastrin release, and gastric emptying in humans as affected by liquid meal temperature,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 51–54, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. W. M. Sun, R. Penagini, G. Hebbard et al., “Effect of drink temperature on antropyloroduodenal motility and gastric electrical activity in humans,” Gut, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 329–334, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. Y. Nakae, M. Kagaya, R. Takagi, Y. Matsutani, H. Horibe, and T. Kondo, “Cold pain prolongs gastric emptying of liquid but not solid meal: an electrical impedance tomography (EIT) study,” Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 593–597, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. Y. Mishima, Y. Amano, Y. Takahashi et al., “Gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals at various temperatures: effect of meal temperature for gastric emptying,” Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 412–418, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. W. T. Jackson, M. Schlamowitz, and A. Shaw, “Kinetics of the pepsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-diiodotyrosine,” Biochemistry, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1537–1543, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. Marino, S. Ganguli, I. M. P. Joseph, and D. E. Kirschner, “The importance of an inter-compartmental delay in a model for human gastric acid secretion,,” Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 963–990, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. L. Schiller and Z. Naumann, “A drag coefficient correlation,” Zeitschrift des Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure, vol. 77, pp. 318–320, 1935. View at Google Scholar
  75. G. P. Sachdev and J. S. Fruton, “Kinetics of action of pepsin on fluorescent peptide substrates,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 72, no. 9, pp. 3424–3427, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. B. Voegborlo, A. M. El-Methnani, and M. Z. Abedin, “Mercury, cadmium and lead content of canned tuna fish,” Food Chemistry, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 341–345, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M.-A. Peyron, A. Mishellany, and A. Woda, “Particle size distribution of food boluses after mastication of six natural foods,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 83, no. 7, pp. 578–582, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. P. H. Katelaris, F. Seow, B. P. C. Lin, J. Napoli, M. C. Ngu, and D. B. Jones, “Effect of age, Helicobacter pylori infection, and gastritis with atrophy on serum gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy men,” Gut, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1032–1037, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. K. Haruma, T. Kamada, H. Kawaguchi et al., “Effect of age and Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric acid secretion,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 277–283, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. I. Isenberg, J. A. Selling, D. L. Hogan, and M. A. Koss, “Impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 316, no. 7, pp. 374–379, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. E. P. DiMagno, J. R. Malagelada, and V. L. W. Go, “The relationships between pancreatic ductal obstruction and pancreatic secretion in man,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 157–162, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. B. Vellas, D. Balas, J. Moreau et al., “Exocrine pancreatic secretion in the elderly,” International Journal of Pancreatology, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 497–502, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. V. Kadiyala, L. S. Lee, P. A. Banks et al., “Cigarette smoking impairs pancreatic duct cell bicarbonate secretion,” Journal of the Pancreas, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. M. Camilleri, J. R. Malagelada, M. L. Brown, G. Becker, and A. R. Zinmeister, “Relation between antral motility and gastric emptying of solids and liquids in humans,” American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, vol. 249, no. 5, pp. G580–G585, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. O. Goetze, A. Steingoetter, D. Menne et al., “The effect of macronutrients on gastric volume responses and gastric emptying in humans: a magnetic resonance imaging study,” American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, vol. 292, no. 1, pp. G11–G17, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. G. E. Vist and R. J. Maughan, “The effect of osmolality and carbohydrate content on the rate of gastric emptying of liquids in man,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 486, no. 2, pp. 523–531, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. J. H. Meyer, J. Dressman, A. Fink, and G. Amidon, “Effect of size and density on canine gastric emptying of nondigestible solids,” Gastroenterology, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 805–813, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. K. Haruma, M. Mihara, E. Okamoto et al., “Eradication of Helicobacter pylori increases gastric acidity in patients with atrophic gastritis of the corpus—evaluation of 24-h pH monitoring,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 155–162, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. R. F. McCloy, G. R. Greenberg, and J. H. Baron, “Duodenal pH in health and duodenal ulcer disease: effect of a meal, Coca-Cola, smoking, and cimetidine,” Gut, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 386–392, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. A. Allen and A. Garner, “Mucus and bicarbonate secretion in the stomach and their possible role in mucosal protection,” Gut, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 249–262, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. B. J. Marshall and J. R. Warren, “Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration,” The Lancet, vol. 323, no. 8390, pp. 1311–1315, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. R. G. Lentle and P. W. Janssen, “Physical characteristics of digesta and their influence on flow and mixing in the mammalian intestine: a review,” Journal of Comparative Physiology B, vol. 178, no. 6, pp. 673–690, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. F. Kong, M. H. Oztop, R. P. Singh, and M. J. Mccarthy, “Physical changes in white and brown rice during simulated gastric digestion,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. E450–E457, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. K. J. Shelat, T. Nicholson, B. M. Flanagan, D. Zhang, B. A. Williams, and M. J. Gidley, “Rheology and microstructure characterisation of small intestinal digesta from pigs fed a red meat-containing Western-style diet,” Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 44, pp. 300–308, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus