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Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 5172641, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5172641
Research Article

Analysis of Urine Flow in Three Different Ureter Models

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Soongsil University, 369 Sangdo-Ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-743, Republic of Korea
2Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, 425 Shindaebang-2-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-707, Republic of Korea
3Department of Urology, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, 425 Shindaebang-2-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-707, Republic of Korea
4Department of Radiology, Hiroshima University Hospital, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Young Ho Choi

Received 10 January 2017; Revised 5 April 2017; Accepted 11 May 2017; Published 4 June 2017

Academic Editor: Michele Migliore

Copyright © 2017 Kyung-Wuk Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The ureter provides a way for urine to flow from the kidney to the bladder. Peristalsis in the ureter partially forces the urine flow, along with hydrostatic pressure. Ureteral diseases and a double J stent, which is commonly inserted in a ureteral stenosis or occlusion, disturb normal peristalsis. Ineffective or no peristalsis could make the contour of the ureter a tube, a funnel, or a combination of the two. In this study, we investigated urine flow in the abnormal situation. We made three different, curved tubular, funnel-shaped, and undulated ureter models that were based on human anatomy. A numerical analysis of the urine flow rate and pattern in the ureter was performed for a combination of the three different ureters, with and without a ureteral stenosis and with four different types of double J stents. The three ureters showed a difference in urine flow rate and pattern. Luminal flow rate was affected by ureter shape. The side holes of a double J stent played a different role in detour, which depended on ureter geometry.