Table 5: Summary of two-step binarization methods.

Binarization techniques MetaheuristicProblemReferences

Transfer functionFireflySet covering problem[132, 133]
Synthesis of thinned planar antenna array[134]
Nonlinear binary optimization[135]
Network and reliability constrained unit commitment problem[78]
Permutation flow-shop scheduling problem[136]
AlgaeKnapsack problem[41]
Artificial bee colonySet covering problem[96]
Thermal unit commitment[137]
Cuckoo searchBulk power system[37]
Differential evolutionaryMultiagent systems[29]
Knapsack problems[30]
Binary batUnimodal, multimodal[138]
Traveling Salesman[139]
Gravitational searchUnimodal, multimodal[80, 138]
Open source development modelCombinatorial problems[140]
Particle swarmOptimize sizing of capacitor banks[82]
Bulk power system[81]
Network reconfiguration[83]
Unit commitment problem[31]
Knapsack problems[41, 74]
Teaching-learning basedDesigning plasmonic nanobipyramids based on absorption coefficient[85]
Electromagnetism-like methodTraveling sales[141]
CatfishFeature selection[142]

Great value priorityBinary BatAntenna positioning problem[87]
Particle swarmQuadratic assignment problem[86]

Angle modulationParticle swarmN-queens[92]
Binary problems[89]
Finding defensive islands of large-scale power systems[90]
Differential evolutionKnapsack problems[93]
Binary problems[94]
Artificial bee colonyBinary problems[96]
Feature selection[95]
Binary batGraph coloring[143]
Antenna positioning problem[87]