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Complexity
Volume 2018, Article ID 1613402, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1613402
Research Article

Effects of HD-tDCS on Resting-State Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: An fNIRS Study

1School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Republic of Korea
2Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Keum-Shik Hong; rk.ca.nasup@gnohsk

Received 4 June 2018; Revised 31 August 2018; Accepted 17 September 2018; Published 1 November 2018

Academic Editor: Vincent Labatut

Copyright © 2018 M. Atif Yaqub et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Functional connectivity is linked to several degenerative brain diseases prevalent in our aging society. Electrical stimulation is used for the clinical treatment and rehabilitation of patients with many cognitive disorders. In this study, the effects of high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) on resting-state brain networks in the human prefrontal cortex were investigated by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The intrahemispheric as well as interhemispheric connectivity changes induced by 1 mA HD-tDCS were examined in 15 healthy subjects. Pearson correlation coefficient-based correlation matrices were generated from filtered time series oxyhemoglobin (ΔHbO) signals and converted into binary matrices. Common graph theory metrics were computed to evaluate the network changes. Systematic interhemispheric, intrahemispheric, and intraregional connectivity analyses demonstrated that the stimulation positively affected the resting-state connectivity in the prefrontal cortex. The poststimulation connectivity was increased throughout the prefrontal region, while focal HD-tDCS effects induced an increased rate of connectivity in the stimulated hemisphere. The graph theory metrics clearly distinguished the prestimulation and poststimulation networks for a range of thresholds. The results of this study suggest that HD-tDCS can be used to increase functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex. The increase in functional connectivity can be explored clinically for neurorehabilitation of patients with degenerative brain diseases.