Complexity / 2018 / Article / Tab 5

Research Article

Integrating “Hard” and “Soft” Infrastructural Resilience Assessment for Water Distribution Systems

Table 5

GT measures for the analysis of the social dimension of resilience.

MetricDescriptionMeaning for the social dimensionResilience dimension

CapabilityDetects entities with high connection degree relative to other entities (agent × agent network)A community with high capability can be capable of activating alternative connections in case of emergency, thus limiting problems and disruption.Robustness

Hub centralityAn agent is hub-central if its out-links are to agents that have many other agents sending links to them.Having access to a high number of sources of information and being capable of interacting with central actors make the community’s network redundant and capable of identifying alternatives.Redundancy

Cognitive demandIndividuals who are strong emergent leaders are likely to be not just connected to many people, organizations, tasks, events, areas of expertise, and resources but also engaged in complex tasks where they may not have all the needed resources or knowledge and so have to coordinate with others or have other reasons why they need to coordinate or share data or resources.A community well connected to agents and knowledge is capable of mobilizing crucial resources to meet the needs.Resourcefulness

Closeness centralityCloseness reveals how long it takes information to spread from one node to another in the network. High-scoring nodes in closeness have the shortest paths to all others in the network. It would follow that such nodes could monitor the information flow in an organization better than most others that have a lesser closeness value.Nodes with the highest value in this measure will have the best picture of what is happening in the network as a whole. An actor with short paths can rapidly distribute information and have rapid access to pieces of information to quickly return to preevent functional levels.Rapidity

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