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Volume 2018, Article ID 7039790, 15 pages
Research Article

Improved Solutions for the Optimal Coordination of DOCRs Using Firefly Algorithm

Department of Mathematics, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, Pakistan

Correspondence should be addressed to Muhammad Sulaiman; ku.oc.oohay@315namialus

Received 9 October 2017; Revised 24 December 2017; Accepted 11 January 2018; Published 11 February 2018

Academic Editor: Arturo Buscarino

Copyright © 2018 Muhammad Sulaiman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Nature-inspired optimization techniques are useful tools in electrical engineering problems to minimize or maximize an objective function. In this paper, we use the firefly algorithm to improve the optimal solution for the problem of directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs). It is a complex and highly nonlinear constrained optimization problem. In this problem, we have two types of design variables, which are variables for plug settings (PSs) and the time dial settings (TDSs) for each relay in the circuit. The objective function is to minimize the total operating time of all the basic relays to avoid unnecessary delays. We have considered four models in this paper which are IEEE (3-bus, 4-bus, 6-bus, and 8-bus) models. From the numerical results, it is obvious that the firefly algorithm with certain parameter settings performs better than the other state-of-the-art algorithms.