Table 6: Fault diagnosis results with different methods.

Processing methods CResult evaluation
Adjusted Rand index (ARI)Normalized mutual information (NMI)F-measure (F)Accuracy (ACC)

VMD-FE-HGWOSCA-SVM184.07642.22620.90010.90460.95190.9525
[-0.034, 0.034][-0.032, 0.034][-0.019, 0.017][-0.018, 0.017]
VMD-PE-HGWOSCA-SVM2.5155414.07030.92160.92210.96350.9636
[-0.037, 0.053][-0.043, 0.048][-0.017, 0.025][-0.017, 0.025]
EMD-MAR-GWO-SVM172.62220.00100.92840.92440.96620.9667
[-0.031, 0.038][-0.033, 0.039][-0.017, 0.018][-0.016, 0.018]
EMD-MAR-MHGWOSCA-SVM254.31340.03390.92960.92360.96610.9667
[-0.072, 0.053][-0.074, 0.055][-0.041, 0.026][-0.039, 0.026]
VMD-MAR-GWO-SVM515.86580.10280.93250.93110.96910.9693
[-0.048, 0.033][-0.054, 0.039][-0.024, 0.016][-0.023, 0.015]
VMD-MAR-HGWOSCA-SVM324.75950.09250.93800.93660.97190.9720
[-0.039, 0.037][-0.053, 0.037][-0.018, 0.017][-0.018, 0.016]
VMD-MAR-SCA-SVM212.64350.31150.94310.94010.97410.9743
[-0.028, 0.032][-0.041, 0.032][-0.012, 0.014][-0.013, 0.014]
VMD-MAR-MHGWOSCA-SVM261.41970.19090.95730.95540.98080.9808
[-0.034, 0.025][-0.037, 0.023][-0.015, 0.012][-0.015, 0.011]